Visuals in Data Analysis with R

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“There are patterns because we try to find them. A desperate attempt at order because we can’t face the terror that it might all be random.”

—Lauren Beukes, The Shining Girls

Why R?

R is a powerful programming language and free software environment used for statistical computing and data analysis and reporting. Since the R language was developed by and for statisticians it becomes a natural choice for data analysis and data science teams.

Additionally, R comes with a very powerful integrated development environment (IDE) called RStudio that can allow a data science team to work, collaborate and create reports, all in one environment.

Another great advantage of R over other programming languages is the wide range of tools they offer in tidying the data. In an R framework, tidying data refers to the process in which the data is transformed in such a way that the final dataset has each variable on a separate column and each row is a new observation. This approach makes it easier to extract information out of data and it makes it easier to reuse code or an analysis on a new dataset.

“Like families, tidy datasets are all alike but every messy dataset is messy in its own way. Tidy datasets provide a standardized way to link the structure of a dataset (its physical layout) with its semantics (its meaning)”

—Hadley Wickham, Chief Scientist RStudio

The last advantage I would like to mention is the transparency and re usability of using using code over a point and click approach (e.g. using Microsoft Excel or a Business Intelligence software). When you have a report or an analysis written using code it can be run by anyone, they just need to run the code in the required order. If you have multiple datasets that require the same approach, transformation, summary, etc, you can do that with just one run of the code, as opposed to a point and click approach where most of the times you need to process the files one after the other. And the best thing about writing code for data analysis, it can be easily shared between team members and reused in multiple projects.

Visuals in R

Graphics and visuals are a big part of data analysis and reporting. R offers a wide range of tools that can cover all data visualization needs any data analysis or data science might need. The most flexible and most widely used of these tools is the ggplot2 package and that is the one we will use to demonstrate the power and flexibility of visuals in R.

The power of ggplot2 comes from the way in which it creates the graphs. ggplot2 creates graphics in layers, at first it creates a canvas on which to display the visuals, then it adds different layers of visuals, one over the other.

The canvas is simple enough, it just needs some parameters to know what values to display. This will be the X and Y axes and the values we need to declare are the columns we want to become the X and Y columns respectively.

Once we have done that, we need to specify what geometrical shapes (geom) we want to represent the data. These are the visuals most people see and the ones that show the relationship between the data. The geom can be a point, a column, a bar, whatever we need to better display the data.

Before we proceed I would like to explain why this approach is so powerful. By the simple fact that we basically add separate elements on top of another on a canvas, we can control each element as we please. If we just add a geometrical shape, the software will add it according to the X and Y axes on the canvas. However, if we want to display a different dataset, or an element that is on a different scale, we can do that.

I know it sounds a bit complicated, but it is not and we will explore it in more detail below. Let’s start with a basic plot. We can check the code and discuss it afterwards.

library(ggplot2)

ggplot(data = mtcars, mapping = aes(x = hp, y = mpg)) +
         geom_point()

Basically in the code above we have two main parts divided by a +. In the first part we have the function that creates the graph ggplot, the data we want to use mtcars (a dataset provided by R) and the columns we want to use for the X and Y axes. For the second part we have the geom we want to use, in this case a point.

I know this can be confusing, so let’s break the code apart and see if we can understand it better. I will explain it from a technical point of view at first, then we can write the code once more and see if we understand it better.

When we use the graphic function (ggplot()), we are required to provide some details (we can find more about it by using the code ?ggplot or pressing F1 while your cursor is on the function). The details we needed to provide at first where:

  • the dataset
  • the X Axis
  • the Y Axis

Now let’s discuss these particular parameters. In our case the dataset is quite simple, it the mtcars dataset and it looks like this:

Model mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Mazda RX4 21.0 6 160.0 110 3.90 2.620 16.46 0 1 4 4
Mazda RX4 Wag 21.0 6 160.0 110 3.90 2.875 17.02 0 1 4 4
Datsun 710 22.8 4 108.0 93 3.85 2.320 18.61 1 1 4 1
Hornet 4 Drive 21.4 6 258.0 110 3.08 3.215 19.44 1 0 3 1
Hornet Sportabout 18.7 8 360.0 175 3.15 3.440 17.02 0 0 3 2
Valiant 18.1 6 225.0 105 2.76 3.460 20.22 1 0 3 1
Duster 360 14.3 8 360.0 245 3.21 3.570 15.84 0 0 3 4
Merc 240D 24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.190 20.00 1 0 4 2
Merc 230 22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.150 22.90 1 0 4 2
Merc 280 19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.30 1 0 4 4
Merc 280C 17.8 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.90 1 0 4 4
Merc 450SE 16.4 8 275.8 180 3.07 4.070 17.40 0 0 3 3
Merc 450SL 17.3 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.730 17.60 0 0 3 3
Merc 450SLC 15.2 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.780 18.00 0 0 3 3
Cadillac Fleetwood 10.4 8 472.0 205 2.93 5.250 17.98 0 0 3 4
Lincoln Continental 10.4 8 460.0 215 3.00 5.424 17.82 0 0 3 4
Chrysler Imperial 14.7 8 440.0 230 3.23 5.345 17.42 0 0 3 4
Fiat 128 32.4 4 78.7 66 4.08 2.200 19.47 1 1 4 1
Honda Civic 30.4 4 75.7 52 4.93 1.615 18.52 1 1 4 2
Toyota Corolla 33.9 4 71.1 65 4.22 1.835 19.90 1 1 4 1
Toyota Corona 21.5 4 120.1 97 3.70 2.465 20.01 1 0 3 1
Dodge Challenger 15.5 8 318.0 150 2.76 3.520 16.87 0 0 3 2
AMC Javelin 15.2 8 304.0 150 3.15 3.435 17.30 0 0 3 2
Camaro Z28 13.3 8 350.0 245 3.73 3.840 15.41 0 0 3 4
Pontiac Firebird 19.2 8 400.0 175 3.08 3.845 17.05 0 0 3 2
Fiat X1-9 27.3 4 79.0 66 4.08 1.935 18.90 1 1 4 1
Porsche 914-2 26.0 4 120.3 91 4.43 2.140 16.70 0 1 5 2
Lotus Europa 30.4 4 95.1 113 3.77 1.513 16.90 1 1 5 2
Ford Pantera L 15.8 8 351.0 264 4.22 3.170 14.50 0 1 5 4
Ferrari Dino 19.7 6 145.0 175 3.62 2.770 15.50 0 1 5 6
Maserati Bora 15.0 8 301.0 335 3.54 3.570 14.60 0 1 5 8
Volvo 142E 21.4 4 121.0 109 4.11 2.780 18.60 1 1 4 2


Now that we see the data I think we can clarify better what we did above so let’s try it. The function takes the dataset and using the mapping = function it can translate the values from columns in the dataset to the axes on the canvas. So, let’s see the code one more time and break it down, than we can add more elements to see exactly how this works. I will comment each element by using a # before the comment.

ggplot(
  # The dataset we want to use
  data = mtcars,
  
  # The next step is to map the columns from the data to the function
  # aes() is a function required for the mapping function
       mapping = aes(
         
          # We need to specify the two axes
                     x = hp,
                     y = mpg)) +
  
  # A geometrical form we want to use for displaying the data
         geom_point()

I would like to explain a bit more the importance of mapping. This is just a way to assign values from the dataset to different dimensions of the canvas. The elements are not just the X and Y axes, they can be anything else that offers additional information, colour, titles, shapes, etc.

In the example below I will add colours to the graph according to the number of cylinders (cyl). We will also add the model to make it easier to check the values and compare them in the table should we want to do so.

ggplot(data = mtcars,
       mapping = aes(
         x = hp,
         y = mpg,
         colour = cyl,
         label = Model
       )) +
  geom_point() +
  geom_text(vjust = -0.5)

If we use the same line (colour = cyl) outside the mapping function we will get an error because R does not know where to find the cyl object. However, we can use the colour parameter outside mapping, if we want to use it as a global parameter for an aesthetic purpose. In geom_point we can pass the colour = argument with either a colour (e.g. red, blue, green) or a HEX code (e.g. #2815E3)

ggplot(data = mtcars,
       mapping = aes(
         x = hp,
         y = mpg
       )) +
  geom_point(colour =  "#2815E3")

We can find more about the different geometrical forms that we can use here.

Increasing complexity in visuals

Pipelines

Before we start I would like to show you another way to write code in R to make it easier to read. We will use an operator that will allow us to write the code in steps and make it easier to update and maintain said code. So, in R ggplot(data = mtcars, mapping = aes(x = hp, y = mpg)) is the same as mtcars %>% ggplot(mapping = aes(x = hp, y = mpg)). It is not such a big change, however it makes a big difference in understanding the code. For the sake of simplicity, you can think of the %>% pipe operator (read “and then”) as a operator that applies functions to a dataset and maps the dataset to those functions automatically. Let’s see this at work.

library(dplyr)                  # library we need to transform the data
                                
# Dataset + pipe operator
mtcars %>%
  
  # filter the data so only the rows that have the value 6 on the cyl column remain
  filter(cyl == 6) %>%
  
  # keep just the two mentioned columns
  select(Model, cyl) %>%
  
# Styling to make the table easier to see
  kable(format = "html") %>%
  kable_styling(bootstrap_options = c("striped", "hover", "condensed", "responsive"), fixed_thead = T)
Model cyl
Mazda RX4 6
Mazda RX4 Wag 6
Hornet 4 Drive 6
Valiant 6
Merc 280 6
Merc 280C 6
Ferrari Dino 6

The code above can be read as follows:

  • take the mtcars dataset AND THEN (%>%)
  • filter the cyl column AND THEN (%>%)
  • select the Model and cyl columns AND THEN (%>%)
  • apply the html format from kable AND THEN (%>%)
  • specify the styling of the table

The same result can be achieved if we write the code differently, however it is less easy to change along the way and less easy to read when we add more transformations to one dataset.

kable_styling(
  kable(
    select(
      filter(mtcars, cyl ==6), Model, cyl
      ), 
    format = "html"), 
  bootstrap_options = c("striped", "hover", "condensed", "responsive"), fixed_thead = T)
Model cyl
Mazda RX4 6
Mazda RX4 Wag 6
Hornet 4 Drive 6
Valiant 6
Merc 280 6
Merc 280C 6
Ferrari Dino 6

The first example of code might be counter-intuitive, however once you get used to it you will see that it’s easier to read, easier to update and maintain. If we want to update the code, all we need to do is add or delete a line in the code. We can do that as well in the second example, if we write the code like above, however we still need to check where the parentheses close and delete that as well, so it’s more of a bother.

Dataset

Now that we understand the main idea behind the grammar of graphics, mapping values from a dataset, I would like to show you how the layers of ggplot work and how we can start small and add different layers and complexity to a graphic to get more information out of it.

In order to do so, I will use a different dataset, the gapminder data. The table looks like this.

country continent year lifeExp pop gdpPercap
Afghanistan Asia 1952 28.80100 8425333 779.4453
Afghanistan Asia 1957 30.33200 9240934 820.8530
Afghanistan Asia 1962 31.99700 10267083 853.1007
Afghanistan Asia 1967 34.02000 11537966 836.1971
Afghanistan Asia 1972 36.08800 13079460 739.9811
Afghanistan Asia 1977 38.43800 14880372 786.1134
Afghanistan Asia 1982 39.85400 12881816 978.0114
Afghanistan Asia 1987 40.82200 13867957 852.3959
Afghanistan Asia 1992 41.67400 16317921 649.3414
Afghanistan Asia 1997 41.76300 22227415 635.3414
Afghanistan Asia 2002 42.12900 25268405 726.7341
Afghanistan Asia 2007 43.82800 31889923 974.5803
Albania Europe 1952 55.23000 1282697 1601.0561
Albania Europe 1957 59.28000 1476505 1942.2842
Albania Europe 1962 64.82000 1728137 2312.8890
Albania Europe 1967 66.22000 1984060 2760.1969
Albania Europe 1972 67.69000 2263554 3313.4222
Albania Europe 1977 68.93000 2509048 3533.0039
Albania Europe 1982 70.42000 2780097 3630.8807
Albania Europe 1987 72.00000 3075321 3738.9327
Albania Europe 1992 71.58100 3326498 2497.4379
Albania Europe 1997 72.95000 3428038 3193.0546
Albania Europe 2002 75.65100 3508512 4604.2117
Albania Europe 2007 76.42300 3600523 5937.0295
Algeria Africa 1952 43.07700 9279525 2449.0082
Algeria Africa 1957 45.68500 10270856 3013.9760
Algeria Africa 1962 48.30300 11000948 2550.8169
Algeria Africa 1967 51.40700 12760499 3246.9918
Algeria Africa 1972 54.51800 14760787 4182.6638
Algeria Africa 1977 58.01400 17152804 4910.4168
Algeria Africa 1982 61.36800 20033753 5745.1602
Algeria Africa 1987 65.79900 23254956 5681.3585
Algeria Africa 1992 67.74400 26298373 5023.2166
Algeria Africa 1997 69.15200 29072015 4797.2951
Algeria Africa 2002 70.99400 31287142 5288.0404
Algeria Africa 2007 72.30100 33333216 6223.3675
Angola Africa 1952 30.01500 4232095 3520.6103
Angola Africa 1957 31.99900 4561361 3827.9405
Angola Africa 1962 34.00000 4826015 4269.2767
Angola Africa 1967 35.98500 5247469 5522.7764
Angola Africa 1972 37.92800 5894858 5473.2880
Angola Africa 1977 39.48300 6162675 3008.6474
Angola Africa 1982 39.94200 7016384 2756.9537
Angola Africa 1987 39.90600 7874230 2430.2083
Angola Africa 1992 40.64700 8735988 2627.8457
Angola Africa 1997 40.96300 9875024 2277.1409
Angola Africa 2002 41.00300 10866106 2773.2873
Angola Africa 2007 42.73100 12420476 4797.2313
Argentina Americas 1952 62.48500 17876956 5911.3151
Argentina Americas 1957 64.39900 19610538 6856.8562
Argentina Americas 1962 65.14200 21283783 7133.1660
Argentina Americas 1967 65.63400 22934225 8052.9530
Argentina Americas 1972 67.06500 24779799 9443.0385
Argentina Americas 1977 68.48100 26983828 10079.0267
Argentina Americas 1982 69.94200 29341374 8997.8974
Argentina Americas 1987 70.77400 31620918 9139.6714
Argentina Americas 1992 71.86800 33958947 9308.4187
Argentina Americas 1997 73.27500 36203463 10967.2820
Argentina Americas 2002 74.34000 38331121 8797.6407
Argentina Americas 2007 75.32000 40301927 12779.3796
Australia Oceania 1952 69.12000 8691212 10039.5956
Australia Oceania 1957 70.33000 9712569 10949.6496
Australia Oceania 1962 70.93000 10794968 12217.2269
Australia Oceania 1967 71.10000 11872264 14526.1246
Australia Oceania 1972 71.93000 13177000 16788.6295
Australia Oceania 1977 73.49000 14074100 18334.1975
Australia Oceania 1982 74.74000 15184200 19477.0093
Australia Oceania 1987 76.32000 16257249 21888.8890
Australia Oceania 1992 77.56000 17481977 23424.7668
Australia Oceania 1997 78.83000 18565243 26997.9366
Australia Oceania 2002 80.37000 19546792 30687.7547
Australia Oceania 2007 81.23500 20434176 34435.3674
Austria Europe 1952 66.80000 6927772 6137.0765
Austria Europe 1957 67.48000 6965860 8842.5980
Austria Europe 1962 69.54000 7129864 10750.7211
Austria Europe 1967 70.14000 7376998 12834.6024
Austria Europe 1972 70.63000 7544201 16661.6256
Austria Europe 1977 72.17000 7568430 19749.4223
Austria Europe 1982 73.18000 7574613 21597.0836
Austria Europe 1987 74.94000 7578903 23687.8261
Austria Europe 1992 76.04000 7914969 27042.0187
Austria Europe 1997 77.51000 8069876 29095.9207
Austria Europe 2002 78.98000 8148312 32417.6077
Austria Europe 2007 79.82900 8199783 36126.4927
Bahrain Asia 1952 50.93900 120447 9867.0848
Bahrain Asia 1957 53.83200 138655 11635.7995
Bahrain Asia 1962 56.92300 171863 12753.2751
Bahrain Asia 1967 59.92300 202182 14804.6727
Bahrain Asia 1972 63.30000 230800 18268.6584
Bahrain Asia 1977 65.59300 297410 19340.1020
Bahrain Asia 1982 69.05200 377967 19211.1473
Bahrain Asia 1987 70.75000 454612 18524.0241
Bahrain Asia 1992 72.60100 529491 19035.5792
Bahrain Asia 1997 73.92500 598561 20292.0168
Bahrain Asia 2002 74.79500 656397 23403.5593
Bahrain Asia 2007 75.63500 708573 29796.0483
Bangladesh Asia 1952 37.48400 46886859 684.2442
Bangladesh Asia 1957 39.34800 51365468 661.6375
Bangladesh Asia 1962 41.21600 56839289 686.3416
Bangladesh Asia 1967 43.45300 62821884 721.1861
Bangladesh Asia 1972 45.25200 70759295 630.2336
Bangladesh Asia 1977 46.92300 80428306 659.8772
Bangladesh Asia 1982 50.00900 93074406 676.9819
Bangladesh Asia 1987 52.81900 103764241 751.9794
Bangladesh Asia 1992 56.01800 113704579 837.8102
Bangladesh Asia 1997 59.41200 123315288 972.7700
Bangladesh Asia 2002 62.01300 135656790 1136.3904
Bangladesh Asia 2007 64.06200 150448339 1391.2538
Belgium Europe 1952 68.00000 8730405 8343.1051
Belgium Europe 1957 69.24000 8989111 9714.9606
Belgium Europe 1962 70.25000 9218400 10991.2068
Belgium Europe 1967 70.94000 9556500 13149.0412
Belgium Europe 1972 71.44000 9709100 16672.1436
Belgium Europe 1977 72.80000 9821800 19117.9745
Belgium Europe 1982 73.93000 9856303 20979.8459
Belgium Europe 1987 75.35000 9870200 22525.5631
Belgium Europe 1992 76.46000 10045622 25575.5707
Belgium Europe 1997 77.53000 10199787 27561.1966
Belgium Europe 2002 78.32000 10311970 30485.8838
Belgium Europe 2007 79.44100 10392226 33692.6051
Benin Africa 1952 38.22300 1738315 1062.7522
Benin Africa 1957 40.35800 1925173 959.6011
Benin Africa 1962 42.61800 2151895 949.4991
Benin Africa 1967 44.88500 2427334 1035.8314
Benin Africa 1972 47.01400 2761407 1085.7969
Benin Africa 1977 49.19000 3168267 1029.1613
Benin Africa 1982 50.90400 3641603 1277.8976
Benin Africa 1987 52.33700 4243788 1225.8560
Benin Africa 1992 53.91900 4981671 1191.2077
Benin Africa 1997 54.77700 6066080 1232.9753
Benin Africa 2002 54.40600 7026113 1372.8779
Benin Africa 2007 56.72800 8078314 1441.2849
Bolivia Americas 1952 40.41400 2883315 2677.3263
Bolivia Americas 1957 41.89000 3211738 2127.6863
Bolivia Americas 1962 43.42800 3593918 2180.9725
Bolivia Americas 1967 45.03200 4040665 2586.8861
Bolivia Americas 1972 46.71400 4565872 2980.3313
Bolivia Americas 1977 50.02300 5079716 3548.0978
Bolivia Americas 1982 53.85900 5642224 3156.5105
Bolivia Americas 1987 57.25100 6156369 2753.6915
Bolivia Americas 1992 59.95700 6893451 2961.6997
Bolivia Americas 1997 62.05000 7693188 3326.1432
Bolivia Americas 2002 63.88300 8445134 3413.2627
Bolivia Americas 2007 65.55400 9119152 3822.1371
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1952 53.82000 2791000 973.5332
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1957 58.45000 3076000 1353.9892
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1962 61.93000 3349000 1709.6837
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1967 64.79000 3585000 2172.3524
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1972 67.45000 3819000 2860.1698
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1977 69.86000 4086000 3528.4813
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1982 70.69000 4172693 4126.6132
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1987 71.14000 4338977 4314.1148
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1992 72.17800 4256013 2546.7814
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1997 73.24400 3607000 4766.3559
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 2002 74.09000 4165416 6018.9752
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 2007 74.85200 4552198 7446.2988
Botswana Africa 1952 47.62200 442308 851.2411
Botswana Africa 1957 49.61800 474639 918.2325
Botswana Africa 1962 51.52000 512764 983.6540
Botswana Africa 1967 53.29800 553541 1214.7093
Botswana Africa 1972 56.02400 619351 2263.6111
Botswana Africa 1977 59.31900 781472 3214.8578
Botswana Africa 1982 61.48400 970347 4551.1421
Botswana Africa 1987 63.62200 1151184 6205.8839
Botswana Africa 1992 62.74500 1342614 7954.1116
Botswana Africa 1997 52.55600 1536536 8647.1423
Botswana Africa 2002 46.63400 1630347 11003.6051
Botswana Africa 2007 50.72800 1639131 12569.8518
Brazil Americas 1952 50.91700 56602560 2108.9444
Brazil Americas 1957 53.28500 65551171 2487.3660
Brazil Americas 1962 55.66500 76039390 3336.5858
Brazil Americas 1967 57.63200 88049823 3429.8644
Brazil Americas 1972 59.50400 100840058 4985.7115
Brazil Americas 1977 61.48900 114313951 6660.1187
Brazil Americas 1982 63.33600 128962939 7030.8359
Brazil Americas 1987 65.20500 142938076 7807.0958
Brazil Americas 1992 67.05700 155975974 6950.2830
Brazil Americas 1997 69.38800 168546719 7957.9808
Brazil Americas 2002 71.00600 179914212 8131.2128
Brazil Americas 2007 72.39000 190010647 9065.8008
Bulgaria Europe 1952 59.60000 7274900 2444.2866
Bulgaria Europe 1957 66.61000 7651254 3008.6707
Bulgaria Europe 1962 69.51000 8012946 4254.3378
Bulgaria Europe 1967 70.42000 8310226 5577.0028
Bulgaria Europe 1972 70.90000 8576200 6597.4944
Bulgaria Europe 1977 70.81000 8797022 7612.2404
Bulgaria Europe 1982 71.08000 8892098 8224.1916
Bulgaria Europe 1987 71.34000 8971958 8239.8548
Bulgaria Europe 1992 71.19000 8658506 6302.6234
Bulgaria Europe 1997 70.32000 8066057 5970.3888
Bulgaria Europe 2002 72.14000 7661799 7696.7777
Bulgaria Europe 2007 73.00500 7322858 10680.7928
Burkina Faso Africa 1952 31.97500 4469979 543.2552
Burkina Faso Africa 1957 34.90600 4713416 617.1835
Burkina Faso Africa 1962 37.81400 4919632 722.5120
Burkina Faso Africa 1967 40.69700 5127935 794.8266
Burkina Faso Africa 1972 43.59100 5433886 854.7360
Burkina Faso Africa 1977 46.13700 5889574 743.3870
Burkina Faso Africa 1982 48.12200 6634596 807.1986
Burkina Faso Africa 1987 49.55700 7586551 912.0631
Burkina Faso Africa 1992 50.26000 8878303 931.7528
Burkina Faso Africa 1997 50.32400 10352843 946.2950
Burkina Faso Africa 2002 50.65000 12251209 1037.6452
Burkina Faso Africa 2007 52.29500 14326203 1217.0330
Burundi Africa 1952 39.03100 2445618 339.2965
Burundi Africa 1957 40.53300 2667518 379.5646
Burundi Africa 1962 42.04500 2961915 355.2032
Burundi Africa 1967 43.54800 3330989 412.9775
Burundi Africa 1972 44.05700 3529983 464.0995
Burundi Africa 1977 45.91000 3834415 556.1033
Burundi Africa 1982 47.47100 4580410 559.6032
Burundi Africa 1987 48.21100 5126023 621.8188
Burundi Africa 1992 44.73600 5809236 631.6999
Burundi Africa 1997 45.32600 6121610 463.1151
Burundi Africa 2002 47.36000 7021078 446.4035
Burundi Africa 2007 49.58000 8390505 430.0707
Cambodia Asia 1952 39.41700 4693836 368.4693
Cambodia Asia 1957 41.36600 5322536 434.0383
Cambodia Asia 1962 43.41500 6083619 496.9136
Cambodia Asia 1967 45.41500 6960067 523.4323
Cambodia Asia 1972 40.31700 7450606 421.6240
Cambodia Asia 1977 31.22000 6978607 524.9722
Cambodia Asia 1982 50.95700 7272485 624.4755
Cambodia Asia 1987 53.91400 8371791 683.8956
Cambodia Asia 1992 55.80300 10150094 682.3032
Cambodia Asia 1997 56.53400 11782962 734.2852
Cambodia Asia 2002 56.75200 12926707 896.2260
Cambodia Asia 2007 59.72300 14131858 1713.7787
Cameroon Africa 1952 38.52300 5009067 1172.6677
Cameroon Africa 1957 40.42800 5359923 1313.0481
Cameroon Africa 1962 42.64300 5793633 1399.6074
Cameroon Africa 1967 44.79900 6335506 1508.4531
Cameroon Africa 1972 47.04900 7021028 1684.1465
Cameroon Africa 1977 49.35500 7959865 1783.4329
Cameroon Africa 1982 52.96100 9250831 2367.9833
Cameroon Africa 1987 54.98500 10780667 2602.6642
Cameroon Africa 1992 54.31400 12467171 1793.1633
Cameroon Africa 1997 52.19900 14195809 1694.3375
Cameroon Africa 2002 49.85600 15929988 1934.0114
Cameroon Africa 2007 50.43000 17696293 2042.0952
Canada Americas 1952 68.75000 14785584 11367.1611
Canada Americas 1957 69.96000 17010154 12489.9501
Canada Americas 1962 71.30000 18985849 13462.4855
Canada Americas 1967 72.13000 20819767 16076.5880
Canada Americas 1972 72.88000 22284500 18970.5709
Canada Americas 1977 74.21000 23796400 22090.8831
Canada Americas 1982 75.76000 25201900 22898.7921
Canada Americas 1987 76.86000 26549700 26626.5150
Canada Americas 1992 77.95000 28523502 26342.8843
Canada Americas 1997 78.61000 30305843 28954.9259
Canada Americas 2002 79.77000 31902268 33328.9651
Canada Americas 2007 80.65300 33390141 36319.2350
Central African Republic Africa 1952 35.46300 1291695 1071.3107
Central African Republic Africa 1957 37.46400 1392284 1190.8443
Central African Republic Africa 1962 39.47500 1523478 1193.0688
Central African Republic Africa 1967 41.47800 1733638 1136.0566
Central African Republic Africa 1972 43.45700 1927260 1070.0133
Central African Republic Africa 1977 46.77500 2167533 1109.3743
Central African Republic Africa 1982 48.29500 2476971 956.7530
Central African Republic Africa 1987 50.48500 2840009 844.8764
Central African Republic Africa 1992 49.39600 3265124 747.9055
Central African Republic Africa 1997 46.06600 3696513 740.5063
Central African Republic Africa 2002 43.30800 4048013 738.6906
Central African Republic Africa 2007 44.74100 4369038 706.0165
Chad Africa 1952 38.09200 2682462 1178.6659
Chad Africa 1957 39.88100 2894855 1308.4956
Chad Africa 1962 41.71600 3150417 1389.8176
Chad Africa 1967 43.60100 3495967 1196.8106
Chad Africa 1972 45.56900 3899068 1104.1040
Chad Africa 1977 47.38300 4388260 1133.9850
Chad Africa 1982 49.51700 4875118 797.9081
Chad Africa 1987 51.05100 5498955 952.3861
Chad Africa 1992 51.72400 6429417 1058.0643
Chad Africa 1997 51.57300 7562011 1004.9614
Chad Africa 2002 50.52500 8835739 1156.1819
Chad Africa 2007 50.65100 10238807 1704.0637
Chile Americas 1952 54.74500 6377619 3939.9788
Chile Americas 1957 56.07400 7048426 4315.6227
Chile Americas 1962 57.92400 7961258 4519.0943
Chile Americas 1967 60.52300 8858908 5106.6543
Chile Americas 1972 63.44100 9717524 5494.0244
Chile Americas 1977 67.05200 10599793 4756.7638
Chile Americas 1982 70.56500 11487112 5095.6657
Chile Americas 1987 72.49200 12463354 5547.0638
Chile Americas 1992 74.12600 13572994 7596.1260
Chile Americas 1997 75.81600 14599929 10118.0532
Chile Americas 2002 77.86000 15497046 10778.7838
Chile Americas 2007 78.55300 16284741 13171.6388
China Asia 1952 44.00000 556263527 400.4486
China Asia 1957 50.54896 637408000 575.9870
China Asia 1962 44.50136 665770000 487.6740
China Asia 1967 58.38112 754550000 612.7057
China Asia 1972 63.11888 862030000 676.9001
China Asia 1977 63.96736 943455000 741.2375
China Asia 1982 65.52500 1000281000 962.4214
China Asia 1987 67.27400 1084035000 1378.9040
China Asia 1992 68.69000 1164970000 1655.7842
China Asia 1997 70.42600 1230075000 2289.2341
China Asia 2002 72.02800 1280400000 3119.2809
China Asia 2007 72.96100 1318683096 4959.1149
Colombia Americas 1952 50.64300 12350771 2144.1151
Colombia Americas 1957 55.11800 14485993 2323.8056
Colombia Americas 1962 57.86300 17009885 2492.3511
Colombia Americas 1967 59.96300 19764027 2678.7298
Colombia Americas 1972 61.62300 22542890 3264.6600
Colombia Americas 1977 63.83700 25094412 3815.8079
Colombia Americas 1982 66.65300 27764644 4397.5757
Colombia Americas 1987 67.76800 30964245 4903.2191
Colombia Americas 1992 68.42100 34202721 5444.6486
Colombia Americas 1997 70.31300 37657830 6117.3617
Colombia Americas 2002 71.68200 41008227 5755.2600
Colombia Americas 2007 72.88900 44227550 7006.5804
Comoros Africa 1952 40.71500 153936 1102.9909
Comoros Africa 1957 42.46000 170928 1211.1485
Comoros Africa 1962 44.46700 191689 1406.6483
Comoros Africa 1967 46.47200 217378 1876.0296
Comoros Africa 1972 48.94400 250027 1937.5777
Comoros Africa 1977 50.93900 304739 1172.6030
Comoros Africa 1982 52.93300 348643 1267.1001
Comoros Africa 1987 54.92600 395114 1315.9808
Comoros Africa 1992 57.93900 454429 1246.9074
Comoros Africa 1997 60.66000 527982 1173.6182
Comoros Africa 2002 62.97400 614382 1075.8116
Comoros Africa 2007 65.15200 710960 986.1479
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1952 39.14300 14100005 780.5423
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1957 40.65200 15577932 905.8602
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1962 42.12200 17486434 896.3146
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1967 44.05600 19941073 861.5932
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1972 45.98900 23007669 904.8961
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1977 47.80400 26480870 795.7573
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1982 47.78400 30646495 673.7478
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1987 47.41200 35481645 672.7748
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1992 45.54800 41672143 457.7192
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 1997 42.58700 47798986 312.1884
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 2002 44.96600 55379852 241.1659
Congo, Dem. Rep.  Africa 2007 46.46200 64606759 277.5519
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1952 42.11100 854885 2125.6214
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1957 45.05300 940458 2315.0566
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1962 48.43500 1047924 2464.7832
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1967 52.04000 1179760 2677.9396
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1972 54.90700 1340458 3213.1527
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1977 55.62500 1536769 3259.1790
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1982 56.69500 1774735 4879.5075
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1987 57.47000 2064095 4201.1949
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1992 56.43300 2409073 4016.2395
Congo, Rep.  Africa 1997 52.96200 2800947 3484.1644
Congo, Rep.  Africa 2002 52.97000 3328795 3484.0620
Congo, Rep.  Africa 2007 55.32200 3800610 3632.5578
Costa Rica Americas 1952 57.20600 926317 2627.0095
Costa Rica Americas 1957 60.02600 1112300 2990.0108
Costa Rica Americas 1962 62.84200 1345187 3460.9370
Costa Rica Americas 1967 65.42400 1588717 4161.7278
Costa Rica Americas 1972 67.84900 1834796 5118.1469
Costa Rica Americas 1977 70.75000 2108457 5926.8770
Costa Rica Americas 1982 73.45000 2424367 5262.7348
Costa Rica Americas 1987 74.75200 2799811 5629.9153
Costa Rica Americas 1992 75.71300 3173216 6160.4163
Costa Rica Americas 1997 77.26000 3518107 6677.0453
Costa Rica Americas 2002 78.12300 3834934 7723.4472
Costa Rica Americas 2007 78.78200 4133884 9645.0614
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1952 40.47700 2977019 1388.5947
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1957 42.46900 3300000 1500.8959
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1962 44.93000 3832408 1728.8694
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1967 47.35000 4744870 2052.0505
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1972 49.80100 6071696 2378.2011
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1977 52.37400 7459574 2517.7365
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1982 53.98300 9025951 2602.7102
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1987 54.65500 10761098 2156.9561
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1992 52.04400 12772596 1648.0738
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 1997 47.99100 14625967 1786.2654
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 2002 46.83200 16252726 1648.8008
Cote d’Ivoire Africa 2007 48.32800 18013409 1544.7501
Croatia Europe 1952 61.21000 3882229 3119.2365
Croatia Europe 1957 64.77000 3991242 4338.2316
Croatia Europe 1962 67.13000 4076557 5477.8900
Croatia Europe 1967 68.50000 4174366 6960.2979
Croatia Europe 1972 69.61000 4225310 9164.0901
Croatia Europe 1977 70.64000 4318673 11305.3852
Croatia Europe 1982 70.46000 4413368 13221.8218
Croatia Europe 1987 71.52000 4484310 13822.5839
Croatia Europe 1992 72.52700 4494013 8447.7949
Croatia Europe 1997 73.68000 4444595 9875.6045
Croatia Europe 2002 74.87600 4481020 11628.3890
Croatia Europe 2007 75.74800 4493312 14619.2227
Cuba Americas 1952 59.42100 6007797 5586.5388
Cuba Americas 1957 62.32500 6640752 6092.1744
Cuba Americas 1962 65.24600 7254373 5180.7559
Cuba Americas 1967 68.29000 8139332 5690.2680
Cuba Americas 1972 70.72300 8831348 5305.4453
Cuba Americas 1977 72.64900 9537988 6380.4950
Cuba Americas 1982 73.71700 9789224 7316.9181
Cuba Americas 1987 74.17400 10239839 7532.9248
Cuba Americas 1992 74.41400 10723260 5592.8440
Cuba Americas 1997 76.15100 10983007 5431.9904
Cuba Americas 2002 77.15800 11226999 6340.6467
Cuba Americas 2007 78.27300 11416987 8948.1029
Czech Republic Europe 1952 66.87000 9125183 6876.1403
Czech Republic Europe 1957 69.03000 9513758 8256.3439
Czech Republic Europe 1962 69.90000 9620282 10136.8671
Czech Republic Europe 1967 70.38000 9835109 11399.4449
Czech Republic Europe 1972 70.29000 9862158 13108.4536
Czech Republic Europe 1977 70.71000 10161915 14800.1606
Czech Republic Europe 1982 70.96000 10303704 15377.2285
Czech Republic Europe 1987 71.58000 10311597 16310.4434
Czech Republic Europe 1992 72.40000 10315702 14297.0212
Czech Republic Europe 1997 74.01000 10300707 16048.5142
Czech Republic Europe 2002 75.51000 10256295 17596.2102
Czech Republic Europe 2007 76.48600 10228744 22833.3085
Denmark Europe 1952 70.78000 4334000 9692.3852
Denmark Europe 1957 71.81000 4487831 11099.6593
Denmark Europe 1962 72.35000 4646899 13583.3135
Denmark Europe 1967 72.96000 4838800 15937.2112
Denmark Europe 1972 73.47000 4991596 18866.2072
Denmark Europe 1977 74.69000 5088419 20422.9015
Denmark Europe 1982 74.63000 5117810 21688.0405
Denmark Europe 1987 74.80000 5127024 25116.1758
Denmark Europe 1992 75.33000 5171393 26406.7399
Denmark Europe 1997 76.11000 5283663 29804.3457
Denmark Europe 2002 77.18000 5374693 32166.5001
Denmark Europe 2007 78.33200 5468120 35278.4187
Djibouti Africa 1952 34.81200 63149 2669.5295
Djibouti Africa 1957 37.32800 71851 2864.9691
Djibouti Africa 1962 39.69300 89898 3020.9893
Djibouti Africa 1967 42.07400 127617 3020.0505
Djibouti Africa 1972 44.36600 178848 3694.2124
Djibouti Africa 1977 46.51900 228694 3081.7610
Djibouti Africa 1982 48.81200 305991 2879.4681
Djibouti Africa 1987 50.04000 311025 2880.1026
Djibouti Africa 1992 51.60400 384156 2377.1562
Djibouti Africa 1997 53.15700 417908 1895.0170
Djibouti Africa 2002 53.37300 447416 1908.2609
Djibouti Africa 2007 54.79100 496374 2082.4816
Dominican Republic Americas 1952 45.92800 2491346 1397.7171
Dominican Republic Americas 1957 49.82800 2923186 1544.4030
Dominican Republic Americas 1962 53.45900 3453434 1662.1374
Dominican Republic Americas 1967 56.75100 4049146 1653.7230
Dominican Republic Americas 1972 59.63100 4671329 2189.8745
Dominican Republic Americas 1977 61.78800 5302800 2681.9889
Dominican Republic Americas 1982 63.72700 5968349 2861.0924
Dominican Republic Americas 1987 66.04600 6655297 2899.8422
Dominican Republic Americas 1992 68.45700 7351181 3044.2142
Dominican Republic Americas 1997 69.95700 7992357 3614.1013
Dominican Republic Americas 2002 70.84700 8650322 4563.8082
Dominican Republic Americas 2007 72.23500 9319622 6025.3748
Ecuador Americas 1952 48.35700 3548753 3522.1107
Ecuador Americas 1957 51.35600 4058385 3780.5467
Ecuador Americas 1962 54.64000 4681707 4086.1141
Ecuador Americas 1967 56.67800 5432424 4579.0742
Ecuador Americas 1972 58.79600 6298651 5280.9947
Ecuador Americas 1977 61.31000 7278866 6679.6233
Ecuador Americas 1982 64.34200 8365850 7213.7913
Ecuador Americas 1987 67.23100 9545158 6481.7770
Ecuador Americas 1992 69.61300 10748394 7103.7026
Ecuador Americas 1997 72.31200 11911819 7429.4559
Ecuador Americas 2002 74.17300 12921234 5773.0445
Ecuador Americas 2007 74.99400 13755680 6873.2623
Egypt Africa 1952 41.89300 22223309 1418.8224
Egypt Africa 1957 44.44400 25009741 1458.9153
Egypt Africa 1962 46.99200 28173309 1693.3359
Egypt Africa 1967 49.29300 31681188 1814.8807
Egypt Africa 1972 51.13700 34807417 2024.0081
Egypt Africa 1977 53.31900 38783863 2785.4936
Egypt Africa 1982 56.00600 45681811 3503.7296
Egypt Africa 1987 59.79700 52799062 3885.4607
Egypt Africa 1992 63.67400 59402198 3794.7552
Egypt Africa 1997 67.21700 66134291 4173.1818
Egypt Africa 2002 69.80600 73312559 4754.6044
Egypt Africa 2007 71.33800 80264543 5581.1810
El Salvador Americas 1952 45.26200 2042865 3048.3029
El Salvador Americas 1957 48.57000 2355805 3421.5232
El Salvador Americas 1962 52.30700 2747687 3776.8036
El Salvador Americas 1967 55.85500 3232927 4358.5954
El Salvador Americas 1972 58.20700 3790903 4520.2460
El Salvador Americas 1977 56.69600 4282586 5138.9224
El Salvador Americas 1982 56.60400 4474873 4098.3442
El Salvador Americas 1987 63.15400 4842194 4140.4421
El Salvador Americas 1992 66.79800 5274649 4444.2317
El Salvador Americas 1997 69.53500 5783439 5154.8255
El Salvador Americas 2002 70.73400 6353681 5351.5687
El Salvador Americas 2007 71.87800 6939688 5728.3535
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1952 34.48200 216964 375.6431
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1957 35.98300 232922 426.0964
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1962 37.48500 249220 582.8420
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1967 38.98700 259864 915.5960
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1972 40.51600 277603 672.4123
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1977 42.02400 192675 958.5668
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1982 43.66200 285483 927.8253
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1987 45.66400 341244 966.8968
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1992 47.54500 387838 1132.0550
Equatorial Guinea Africa 1997 48.24500 439971 2814.4808
Equatorial Guinea Africa 2002 49.34800 495627 7703.4959
Equatorial Guinea Africa 2007 51.57900 551201 12154.0897
Eritrea Africa 1952 35.92800 1438760 328.9406
Eritrea Africa 1957 38.04700 1542611 344.1619
Eritrea Africa 1962 40.15800 1666618 380.9958
Eritrea Africa 1967 42.18900 1820319 468.7950
Eritrea Africa 1972 44.14200 2260187 514.3242
Eritrea Africa 1977 44.53500 2512642 505.7538
Eritrea Africa 1982 43.89000 2637297 524.8758
Eritrea Africa 1987 46.45300 2915959 521.1341
Eritrea Africa 1992 49.99100 3668440 582.8585
Eritrea Africa 1997 53.37800 4058319 913.4708
Eritrea Africa 2002 55.24000 4414865 765.3500
Eritrea Africa 2007 58.04000 4906585 641.3695
Ethiopia Africa 1952 34.07800 20860941 362.1463
Ethiopia Africa 1957 36.66700 22815614 378.9042
Ethiopia Africa 1962 40.05900 25145372 419.4564
Ethiopia Africa 1967 42.11500 27860297 516.1186
Ethiopia Africa 1972 43.51500 30770372 566.2439
Ethiopia Africa 1977 44.51000 34617799 556.8084
Ethiopia Africa 1982 44.91600 38111756 577.8607
Ethiopia Africa 1987 46.68400 42999530 573.7413
Ethiopia Africa 1992 48.09100 52088559 421.3535
Ethiopia Africa 1997 49.40200 59861301 515.8894
Ethiopia Africa 2002 50.72500 67946797 530.0535
Ethiopia Africa 2007 52.94700 76511887 690.8056
Finland Europe 1952 66.55000 4090500 6424.5191
Finland Europe 1957 67.49000 4324000 7545.4154
Finland Europe 1962 68.75000 4491443 9371.8426
Finland Europe 1967 69.83000 4605744 10921.6363
Finland Europe 1972 70.87000 4639657 14358.8759
Finland Europe 1977 72.52000 4738902 15605.4228
Finland Europe 1982 74.55000 4826933 18533.1576
Finland Europe 1987 74.83000 4931729 21141.0122
Finland Europe 1992 75.70000 5041039 20647.1650
Finland Europe 1997 77.13000 5134406 23723.9502
Finland Europe 2002 78.37000 5193039 28204.5906
Finland Europe 2007 79.31300 5238460 33207.0844
France Europe 1952 67.41000 42459667 7029.8093
France Europe 1957 68.93000 44310863 8662.8349
France Europe 1962 70.51000 47124000 10560.4855
France Europe 1967 71.55000 49569000 12999.9177
France Europe 1972 72.38000 51732000 16107.1917
France Europe 1977 73.83000 53165019 18292.6351
France Europe 1982 74.89000 54433565 20293.8975
France Europe 1987 76.34000 55630100 22066.4421
France Europe 1992 77.46000 57374179 24703.7961
France Europe 1997 78.64000 58623428 25889.7849
France Europe 2002 79.59000 59925035 28926.0323
France Europe 2007 80.65700 61083916 30470.0167
Gabon Africa 1952 37.00300 420702 4293.4765
Gabon Africa 1957 38.99900 434904 4976.1981
Gabon Africa 1962 40.48900 455661 6631.4592
Gabon Africa 1967 44.59800 489004 8358.7620
Gabon Africa 1972 48.69000 537977 11401.9484
Gabon Africa 1977 52.79000 706367 21745.5733
Gabon Africa 1982 56.56400 753874 15113.3619
Gabon Africa 1987 60.19000 880397 11864.4084
Gabon Africa 1992 61.36600 985739 13522.1575
Gabon Africa 1997 60.46100 1126189 14722.8419
Gabon Africa 2002 56.76100 1299304 12521.7139
Gabon Africa 2007 56.73500 1454867 13206.4845
Gambia Africa 1952 30.00000 284320 485.2307
Gambia Africa 1957 32.06500 323150 520.9267
Gambia Africa 1962 33.89600 374020 599.6503
Gambia Africa 1967 35.85700 439593 734.7829
Gambia Africa 1972 38.30800 517101 756.0868
Gambia Africa 1977 41.84200 608274 884.7553
Gambia Africa 1982 45.58000 715523 835.8096
Gambia Africa 1987 49.26500 848406 611.6589
Gambia Africa 1992 52.64400 1025384 665.6244
Gambia Africa 1997 55.86100 1235767 653.7302
Gambia Africa 2002 58.04100 1457766 660.5856
Gambia Africa 2007 59.44800 1688359 752.7497
Germany Europe 1952 67.50000 69145952 7144.1144
Germany Europe 1957 69.10000 71019069 10187.8267
Germany Europe 1962 70.30000 73739117 12902.4629
Germany Europe 1967 70.80000 76368453 14745.6256
Germany Europe 1972 71.00000 78717088 18016.1803
Germany Europe 1977 72.50000 78160773 20512.9212
Germany Europe 1982 73.80000 78335266 22031.5327
Germany Europe 1987 74.84700 77718298 24639.1857
Germany Europe 1992 76.07000 80597764 26505.3032
Germany Europe 1997 77.34000 82011073 27788.8842
Germany Europe 2002 78.67000 82350671 30035.8020
Germany Europe 2007 79.40600 82400996 32170.3744
Ghana Africa 1952 43.14900 5581001 911.2989
Ghana Africa 1957 44.77900 6391288 1043.5615
Ghana Africa 1962 46.45200 7355248 1190.0411
Ghana Africa 1967 48.07200 8490213 1125.6972
Ghana Africa 1972 49.87500 9354120 1178.2237
Ghana Africa 1977 51.75600 10538093 993.2240
Ghana Africa 1982 53.74400 11400338 876.0326
Ghana Africa 1987 55.72900 14168101 847.0061
Ghana Africa 1992 57.50100 16278738 925.0602
Ghana Africa 1997 58.55600 18418288 1005.2458
Ghana Africa 2002 58.45300 20550751 1111.9846
Ghana Africa 2007 60.02200 22873338 1327.6089
Greece Europe 1952 65.86000 7733250 3530.6901
Greece Europe 1957 67.86000 8096218 4916.2999
Greece Europe 1962 69.51000 8448233 6017.1907
Greece Europe 1967 71.00000 8716441 8513.0970
Greece Europe 1972 72.34000 8888628 12724.8296
Greece Europe 1977 73.68000 9308479 14195.5243
Greece Europe 1982 75.24000 9786480 15268.4209
Greece Europe 1987 76.67000 9974490 16120.5284
Greece Europe 1992 77.03000 10325429 17541.4963
Greece Europe 1997 77.86900 10502372 18747.6981
Greece Europe 2002 78.25600 10603863 22514.2548
Greece Europe 2007 79.48300 10706290 27538.4119
Guatemala Americas 1952 42.02300 3146381 2428.2378
Guatemala Americas 1957 44.14200 3640876 2617.1560
Guatemala Americas 1962 46.95400 4208858 2750.3644
Guatemala Americas 1967 50.01600 4690773 3242.5311
Guatemala Americas 1972 53.73800 5149581 4031.4083
Guatemala Americas 1977 56.02900 5703430 4879.9927
Guatemala Americas 1982 58.13700 6395630 4820.4948
Guatemala Americas 1987 60.78200 7326406 4246.4860
Guatemala Americas 1992 63.37300 8486949 4439.4508
Guatemala Americas 1997 66.32200 9803875 4684.3138
Guatemala Americas 2002 68.97800 11178650 4858.3475
Guatemala Americas 2007 70.25900 12572928 5186.0500
Guinea Africa 1952 33.60900 2664249 510.1965
Guinea Africa 1957 34.55800 2876726 576.2670
Guinea Africa 1962 35.75300 3140003 686.3737
Guinea Africa 1967 37.19700 3451418 708.7595
Guinea Africa 1972 38.84200 3811387 741.6662
Guinea Africa 1977 40.76200 4227026 874.6859
Guinea Africa 1982 42.89100 4710497 857.2504
Guinea Africa 1987 45.55200 5650262 805.5725
Guinea Africa 1992 48.57600 6990574 794.3484
Guinea Africa 1997 51.45500 8048834 869.4498
Guinea Africa 2002 53.67600 8807818 945.5836
Guinea Africa 2007 56.00700 9947814 942.6542
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1952 32.50000 580653 299.8503
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1957 33.48900 601095 431.7905
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1962 34.48800 627820 522.0344
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1967 35.49200 601287 715.5806
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1972 36.48600 625361 820.2246
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1977 37.46500 745228 764.7260
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1982 39.32700 825987 838.1240
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1987 41.24500 927524 736.4154
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1992 43.26600 1050938 745.5399
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1997 44.87300 1193708 796.6645
Guinea-Bissau Africa 2002 45.50400 1332459 575.7047
Guinea-Bissau Africa 2007 46.38800 1472041 579.2317
Haiti Americas 1952 37.57900 3201488 1840.3669
Haiti Americas 1957 40.69600 3507701 1726.8879
Haiti Americas 1962 43.59000 3880130 1796.5890
Haiti Americas 1967 46.24300 4318137 1452.0577
Haiti Americas 1972 48.04200 4698301 1654.4569
Haiti Americas 1977 49.92300 4908554 1874.2989
Haiti Americas 1982 51.46100 5198399 2011.1595
Haiti Americas 1987 53.63600 5756203 1823.0160
Haiti Americas 1992 55.08900 6326682 1456.3095
Haiti Americas 1997 56.67100 6913545 1341.7269
Haiti Americas 2002 58.13700 7607651 1270.3649
Haiti Americas 2007 60.91600 8502814 1201.6372
Honduras Americas 1952 41.91200 1517453 2194.9262
Honduras Americas 1957 44.66500 1770390 2220.4877
Honduras Americas 1962 48.04100 2090162 2291.1568
Honduras Americas 1967 50.92400 2500689 2538.2694
Honduras Americas 1972 53.88400 2965146 2529.8423
Honduras Americas 1977 57.40200 3055235 3203.2081
Honduras Americas 1982 60.90900 3669448 3121.7608
Honduras Americas 1987 64.49200 4372203 3023.0967
Honduras Americas 1992 66.39900 5077347 3081.6946
Honduras Americas 1997 67.65900 5867957 3160.4549
Honduras Americas 2002 68.56500 6677328 3099.7287
Honduras Americas 2007 70.19800 7483763 3548.3308
Hong Kong, China Asia 1952 60.96000 2125900 3054.4212
Hong Kong, China Asia 1957 64.75000 2736300 3629.0765
Hong Kong, China Asia 1962 67.65000 3305200 4692.6483
Hong Kong, China Asia 1967 70.00000 3722800 6197.9628
Hong Kong, China Asia 1972 72.00000 4115700 8315.9281
Hong Kong, China Asia 1977 73.60000 4583700 11186.1413
Hong Kong, China Asia 1982 75.45000 5264500 14560.5305
Hong Kong, China Asia 1987 76.20000 5584510 20038.4727
Hong Kong, China Asia 1992 77.60100 5829696 24757.6030
Hong Kong, China Asia 1997 80.00000 6495918 28377.6322
Hong Kong, China Asia 2002 81.49500 6762476 30209.0152
Hong Kong, China Asia 2007 82.20800 6980412 39724.9787
Hungary Europe 1952 64.03000 9504000 5263.6738
Hungary Europe 1957 66.41000 9839000 6040.1800
Hungary Europe 1962 67.96000 10063000 7550.3599
Hungary Europe 1967 69.50000 10223422 9326.6447
Hungary Europe 1972 69.76000 10394091 10168.6561
Hungary Europe 1977 69.95000 10637171 11674.8374
Hungary Europe 1982 69.39000 10705535 12545.9907
Hungary Europe 1987 69.58000 10612740 12986.4800
Hungary Europe 1992 69.17000 10348684 10535.6285
Hungary Europe 1997 71.04000 10244684 11712.7768
Hungary Europe 2002 72.59000 10083313 14843.9356
Hungary Europe 2007 73.33800 9956108 18008.9444
Iceland Europe 1952 72.49000 147962 7267.6884
Iceland Europe 1957 73.47000 165110 9244.0014
Iceland Europe 1962 73.68000 182053 10350.1591
Iceland Europe 1967 73.73000 198676 13319.8957
Iceland Europe 1972 74.46000 209275 15798.0636
Iceland Europe 1977 76.11000 221823 19654.9625
Iceland Europe 1982 76.99000 233997 23269.6075
Iceland Europe 1987 77.23000 244676 26923.2063
Iceland Europe 1992 78.77000 259012 25144.3920
Iceland Europe 1997 78.95000 271192 28061.0997
Iceland Europe 2002 80.50000 288030 31163.2020
Iceland Europe 2007 81.75700 301931 36180.7892
India Asia 1952 37.37300 372000000 546.5657
India Asia 1957 40.24900 409000000 590.0620
India Asia 1962 43.60500 454000000 658.3472
India Asia 1967 47.19300 506000000 700.7706
India Asia 1972 50.65100 567000000 724.0325
India Asia 1977 54.20800 634000000 813.3373
India Asia 1982 56.59600 708000000 855.7235
India Asia 1987 58.55300 788000000 976.5127
India Asia 1992 60.22300 872000000 1164.4068
India Asia 1997 61.76500 959000000 1458.8174
India Asia 2002 62.87900 1034172547 1746.7695
India Asia 2007 64.69800 1110396331 2452.2104
Indonesia Asia 1952 37.46800 82052000 749.6817
Indonesia Asia 1957 39.91800 90124000 858.9003
Indonesia Asia 1962 42.51800 99028000 849.2898
Indonesia Asia 1967 45.96400 109343000 762.4318
Indonesia Asia 1972 49.20300 121282000 1111.1079
Indonesia Asia 1977 52.70200 136725000 1382.7021
Indonesia Asia 1982 56.15900 153343000 1516.8730
Indonesia Asia 1987 60.13700 169276000 1748.3570
Indonesia Asia 1992 62.68100 184816000 2383.1409
Indonesia Asia 1997 66.04100 199278000 3119.3356
Indonesia Asia 2002 68.58800 211060000 2873.9129
Indonesia Asia 2007 70.65000 223547000 3540.6516
Iran Asia 1952 44.86900 17272000 3035.3260
Iran Asia 1957 47.18100 19792000 3290.2576
Iran Asia 1962 49.32500 22874000 4187.3298
Iran Asia 1967 52.46900 26538000 5906.7318
Iran Asia 1972 55.23400 30614000 9613.8186
Iran Asia 1977 57.70200 35480679 11888.5951
Iran Asia 1982 59.62000 43072751 7608.3346
Iran Asia 1987 63.04000 51889696 6642.8814
Iran Asia 1992 65.74200 60397973 7235.6532
Iran Asia 1997 68.04200 63327987 8263.5903
Iran Asia 2002 69.45100 66907826 9240.7620
Iran Asia 2007 70.96400 69453570 11605.7145
Iraq Asia 1952 45.32000 5441766 4129.7661
Iraq Asia 1957 48.43700 6248643 6229.3336
Iraq Asia 1962 51.45700 7240260 8341.7378
Iraq Asia 1967 54.45900 8519282 8931.4598
Iraq Asia 1972 56.95000 10061506 9576.0376
Iraq Asia 1977 60.41300 11882916 14688.2351
Iraq Asia 1982 62.03800 14173318 14517.9071
Iraq Asia 1987 65.04400 16543189 11643.5727
Iraq Asia 1992 59.46100 17861905 3745.6407
Iraq Asia 1997 58.81100 20775703 3076.2398
Iraq Asia 2002 57.04600 24001816 4390.7173
Iraq Asia 2007 59.54500 27499638 4471.0619
Ireland Europe 1952 66.91000 2952156 5210.2803
Ireland Europe 1957 68.90000 2878220 5599.0779
Ireland Europe 1962 70.29000 2830000 6631.5973
Ireland Europe 1967 71.08000 2900100 7655.5690
Ireland Europe 1972 71.28000 3024400 9530.7729
Ireland Europe 1977 72.03000 3271900 11150.9811
Ireland Europe 1982 73.10000 3480000 12618.3214
Ireland Europe 1987 74.36000 3539900 13872.8665
Ireland Europe 1992 75.46700 3557761 17558.8155
Ireland Europe 1997 76.12200 3667233 24521.9471
Ireland Europe 2002 77.78300 3879155 34077.0494
Ireland Europe 2007 78.88500 4109086 40675.9964
Israel Asia 1952 65.39000 1620914 4086.5221
Israel Asia 1957 67.84000 1944401 5385.2785
Israel Asia 1962 69.39000 2310904 7105.6307
Israel Asia 1967 70.75000 2693585 8393.7414
Israel Asia 1972 71.63000 3095893 12786.9322
Israel Asia 1977 73.06000 3495918 13306.6192
Israel Asia 1982 74.45000 3858421 15367.0292
Israel Asia 1987 75.60000 4203148 17122.4799
Israel Asia 1992 76.93000 4936550 18051.5225
Israel Asia 1997 78.26900 5531387 20896.6092
Israel Asia 2002 79.69600 6029529 21905.5951
Israel Asia 2007 80.74500 6426679 25523.2771
Italy Europe 1952 65.94000 47666000 4931.4042
Italy Europe 1957 67.81000 49182000 6248.6562
Italy Europe 1962 69.24000 50843200 8243.5823
Italy Europe 1967 71.06000 52667100 10022.4013
Italy Europe 1972 72.19000 54365564 12269.2738
Italy Europe 1977 73.48000 56059245 14255.9847
Italy Europe 1982 74.98000 56535636 16537.4835
Italy Europe 1987 76.42000 56729703 19207.2348
Italy Europe 1992 77.44000 56840847 22013.6449
Italy Europe 1997 78.82000 57479469 24675.0245
Italy Europe 2002 80.24000 57926999 27968.0982
Italy Europe 2007 80.54600 58147733 28569.7197
Jamaica Americas 1952 58.53000 1426095 2898.5309
Jamaica Americas 1957 62.61000 1535090 4756.5258
Jamaica Americas 1962 65.61000 1665128 5246.1075
Jamaica Americas 1967 67.51000 1861096 6124.7035
Jamaica Americas 1972 69.00000 1997616 7433.8893
Jamaica Americas 1977 70.11000 2156814 6650.1956
Jamaica Americas 1982 71.21000 2298309 6068.0513
Jamaica Americas 1987 71.77000 2326606 6351.2375
Jamaica Americas 1992 71.76600 2378618 7404.9237
Jamaica Americas 1997 72.26200 2531311 7121.9247
Jamaica Americas 2002 72.04700 2664659 6994.7749
Jamaica Americas 2007 72.56700 2780132 7320.8803
Japan Asia 1952 63.03000 86459025 3216.9563
Japan Asia 1957 65.50000 91563009 4317.6944
Japan Asia 1962 68.73000 95831757 6576.6495
Japan Asia 1967 71.43000 100825279 9847.7886
Japan Asia 1972 73.42000 107188273 14778.7864
Japan Asia 1977 75.38000 113872473 16610.3770
Japan Asia 1982 77.11000 118454974 19384.1057
Japan Asia 1987 78.67000 122091325 22375.9419
Japan Asia 1992 79.36000 124329269 26824.8951
Japan Asia 1997 80.69000 125956499 28816.5850
Japan Asia 2002 82.00000 127065841 28604.5919
Japan Asia 2007 82.60300 127467972 31656.0681
Jordan Asia 1952 43.15800 607914 1546.9078
Jordan Asia 1957 45.66900 746559 1886.0806
Jordan Asia 1962 48.12600 933559 2348.0092
Jordan Asia 1967 51.62900 1255058 2741.7963
Jordan Asia 1972 56.52800 1613551 2110.8563
Jordan Asia 1977 61.13400 1937652 2852.3516
Jordan Asia 1982 63.73900 2347031 4161.4160
Jordan Asia 1987 65.86900 2820042 4448.6799
Jordan Asia 1992 68.01500 3867409 3431.5936
Jordan Asia 1997 69.77200 4526235 3645.3796
Jordan Asia 2002 71.26300 5307470 3844.9172
Jordan Asia 2007 72.53500 6053193 4519.4612
Kenya Africa 1952 42.27000 6464046 853.5409
Kenya Africa 1957 44.68600 7454779 944.4383
Kenya Africa 1962 47.94900 8678557 896.9664
Kenya Africa 1967 50.65400 10191512 1056.7365
Kenya Africa 1972 53.55900 12044785 1222.3600
Kenya Africa 1977 56.15500 14500404 1267.6132
Kenya Africa 1982 58.76600 17661452 1348.2258
Kenya Africa 1987 59.33900 21198082 1361.9369
Kenya Africa 1992 59.28500 25020539 1341.9217
Kenya Africa 1997 54.40700 28263827 1360.4850
Kenya Africa 2002 50.99200 31386842 1287.5147
Kenya Africa 2007 54.11000 35610177 1463.2493
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1952 50.05600 8865488 1088.2778
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1957 54.08100 9411381 1571.1347
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1962 56.65600 10917494 1621.6936
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1967 59.94200 12617009 2143.5406
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1972 63.98300 14781241 3701.6215
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1977 67.15900 16325320 4106.3012
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1982 69.10000 17647518 4106.5253
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1987 70.64700 19067554 4106.4923
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1992 69.97800 20711375 3726.0635
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 1997 67.72700 21585105 1690.7568
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 2002 66.66200 22215365 1646.7582
Korea, Dem. Rep.  Asia 2007 67.29700 23301725 1593.0655
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1952 47.45300 20947571 1030.5922
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1957 52.68100 22611552 1487.5935
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1962 55.29200 26420307 1536.3444
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1967 57.71600 30131000 2029.2281
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1972 62.61200 33505000 3030.8767
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1977 64.76600 36436000 4657.2210
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1982 67.12300 39326000 5622.9425
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1987 69.81000 41622000 8533.0888
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1992 72.24400 43805450 12104.2787
Korea, Rep.  Asia 1997 74.64700 46173816 15993.5280
Korea, Rep.  Asia 2002 77.04500 47969150 19233.9882
Korea, Rep.  Asia 2007 78.62300 49044790 23348.1397
Kuwait Asia 1952 55.56500 160000 108382.3529
Kuwait Asia 1957 58.03300 212846 113523.1329
Kuwait Asia 1962 60.47000 358266 95458.1118
Kuwait Asia 1967 64.62400 575003 80894.8833
Kuwait Asia 1972 67.71200 841934 109347.8670
Kuwait Asia 1977 69.34300 1140357 59265.4771
Kuwait Asia 1982 71.30900 1497494 31354.0357
Kuwait Asia 1987 74.17400 1891487 28118.4300
Kuwait Asia 1992 75.19000 1418095 34932.9196
Kuwait Asia 1997 76.15600 1765345 40300.6200
Kuwait Asia 2002 76.90400 2111561 35110.1057
Kuwait Asia 2007 77.58800 2505559 47306.9898
Lebanon Asia 1952 55.92800 1439529 4834.8041
Lebanon Asia 1957 59.48900 1647412 6089.7869
Lebanon Asia 1962 62.09400 1886848 5714.5606
Lebanon Asia 1967 63.87000 2186894 6006.9830
Lebanon Asia 1972 65.42100 2680018 7486.3843
Lebanon Asia 1977 66.09900 3115787 8659.6968
Lebanon Asia 1982 66.98300 3086876 7640.5195
Lebanon Asia 1987 67.92600 3089353 5377.0913
Lebanon Asia 1992 69.29200 3219994 6890.8069
Lebanon Asia 1997 70.26500 3430388 8754.9639
Lebanon Asia 2002 71.02800 3677780 9313.9388
Lebanon Asia 2007 71.99300 3921278 10461.0587
Lesotho Africa 1952 42.13800 748747 298.8462
Lesotho Africa 1957 45.04700 813338 335.9971
Lesotho Africa 1962 47.74700 893143 411.8006
Lesotho Africa 1967 48.49200 996380 498.6390
Lesotho Africa 1972 49.76700 1116779 496.5816
Lesotho Africa 1977 52.20800 1251524 745.3695
Lesotho Africa 1982 55.07800 1411807 797.2631
Lesotho Africa 1987 57.18000 1599200 773.9932
Lesotho Africa 1992 59.68500 1803195 977.4863
Lesotho Africa 1997 55.55800 1982823 1186.1480
Lesotho Africa 2002 44.59300 2046772 1275.1846
Lesotho Africa 2007 42.59200 2012649 1569.3314
Liberia Africa 1952 38.48000 863308 575.5730
Liberia Africa 1957 39.48600 975950 620.9700
Liberia Africa 1962 40.50200 1112796 634.1952
Liberia Africa 1967 41.53600 1279406 713.6036
Liberia Africa 1972 42.61400 1482628 803.0055
Liberia Africa 1977 43.76400 1703617 640.3224
Liberia Africa 1982 44.85200 1956875 572.1996
Liberia Africa 1987 46.02700 2269414 506.1139
Liberia Africa 1992 40.80200 1912974 636.6229
Liberia Africa 1997 42.22100 2200725 609.1740
Liberia Africa 2002 43.75300 2814651 531.4824
Liberia Africa 2007 45.67800 3193942 414.5073
Libya Africa 1952 42.72300 1019729 2387.5481
Libya Africa 1957 45.28900 1201578 3448.2844
Libya Africa 1962 47.80800 1441863 6757.0308
Libya Africa 1967 50.22700 1759224 18772.7517
Libya Africa 1972 52.77300 2183877 21011.4972
Libya Africa 1977 57.44200 2721783 21951.2118
Libya Africa 1982 62.15500 3344074 17364.2754
Libya Africa 1987 66.23400 3799845 11770.5898
Libya Africa 1992 68.75500 4364501 9640.1385
Libya Africa 1997 71.55500 4759670 9467.4461
Libya Africa 2002 72.73700 5368585 9534.6775
Libya Africa 2007 73.95200 6036914 12057.4993
Madagascar Africa 1952 36.68100 4762912 1443.0117
Madagascar Africa 1957 38.86500 5181679 1589.2027
Madagascar Africa 1962 40.84800 5703324 1643.3871
Madagascar Africa 1967 42.88100 6334556 1634.0473
Madagascar Africa 1972 44.85100 7082430 1748.5630
Madagascar Africa 1977 46.88100 8007166 1544.2286
Madagascar Africa 1982 48.96900 9171477 1302.8787
Madagascar Africa 1987 49.35000 10568642 1155.4419
Madagascar Africa 1992 52.21400 12210395 1040.6762
Madagascar Africa 1997 54.97800 14165114 986.2959
Madagascar Africa 2002 57.28600 16473477 894.6371
Madagascar Africa 2007 59.44300 19167654 1044.7701
Malawi Africa 1952 36.25600 2917802 369.1651
Malawi Africa 1957 37.20700 3221238 416.3698
Malawi Africa 1962 38.41000 3628608 427.9011
Malawi Africa 1967 39.48700 4147252 495.5148
Malawi Africa 1972 41.76600 4730997 584.6220
Malawi Africa 1977 43.76700 5637246 663.2237
Malawi Africa 1982 45.64200 6502825 632.8039
Malawi Africa 1987 47.45700 7824747 635.5174
Malawi Africa 1992 49.42000 10014249 563.2000
Malawi Africa 1997 47.49500 10419991 692.2758
Malawi Africa 2002 45.00900 11824495 665.4231
Malawi Africa 2007 48.30300 13327079 759.3499
Malaysia Asia 1952 48.46300 6748378 1831.1329
Malaysia Asia 1957 52.10200 7739235 1810.0670
Malaysia Asia 1962 55.73700 8906385 2036.8849
Malaysia Asia 1967 59.37100 10154878 2277.7424
Malaysia Asia 1972 63.01000 11441462 2849.0948
Malaysia Asia 1977 65.25600 12845381 3827.9216
Malaysia Asia 1982 68.00000 14441916 4920.3560
Malaysia Asia 1987 69.50000 16331785 5249.8027
Malaysia Asia 1992 70.69300 18319502 7277.9128
Malaysia Asia 1997 71.93800 20476091 10132.9096
Malaysia Asia 2002 73.04400 22662365 10206.9779
Malaysia Asia 2007 74.24100 24821286 12451.6558
Mali Africa 1952 33.68500 3838168 452.3370
Mali Africa 1957 35.30700 4241884 490.3822
Mali Africa 1962 36.93600 4690372 496.1743
Mali Africa 1967 38.48700 5212416 545.0099
Mali Africa 1972 39.97700 5828158 581.3689
Mali Africa 1977 41.71400 6491649 686.3953
Mali Africa 1982 43.91600 6998256 618.0141
Mali Africa 1987 46.36400 7634008 684.1716
Mali Africa 1992 48.38800 8416215 739.0144
Mali Africa 1997 49.90300 9384984 790.2580
Mali Africa 2002 51.81800 10580176 951.4098
Mali Africa 2007 54.46700 12031795 1042.5816
Mauritania Africa 1952 40.54300 1022556 743.1159
Mauritania Africa 1957 42.33800 1076852 846.1203
Mauritania Africa 1962 44.24800 1146757 1055.8960
Mauritania Africa 1967 46.28900 1230542 1421.1452
Mauritania Africa 1972 48.43700 1332786 1586.8518
Mauritania Africa 1977 50.85200 1456688 1497.4922
Mauritania Africa 1982 53.59900 1622136 1481.1502
Mauritania Africa 1987 56.14500 1841240 1421.6036
Mauritania Africa 1992 58.33300 2119465 1361.3698
Mauritania Africa 1997 60.43000 2444741 1483.1361
Mauritania Africa 2002 62.24700 2828858 1579.0195
Mauritania Africa 2007 64.16400 3270065 1803.1515
Mauritius Africa 1952 50.98600 516556 1967.9557
Mauritius Africa 1957 58.08900 609816 2034.0380
Mauritius Africa 1962 60.24600 701016 2529.0675
Mauritius Africa 1967 61.55700 789309 2475.3876
Mauritius Africa 1972 62.94400 851334 2575.4842
Mauritius Africa 1977 64.93000 913025 3710.9830
Mauritius Africa 1982 66.71100 992040 3688.0377
Mauritius Africa 1987 68.74000 1042663 4783.5869
Mauritius Africa 1992 69.74500 1096202 6058.2538
Mauritius Africa 1997 70.73600 1149818 7425.7053
Mauritius Africa 2002 71.95400 1200206 9021.8159
Mauritius Africa 2007 72.80100 1250882 10956.9911
Mexico Americas 1952 50.78900 30144317 3478.1255
Mexico Americas 1957 55.19000 35015548 4131.5466
Mexico Americas 1962 58.29900 41121485 4581.6094
Mexico Americas 1967 60.11000 47995559 5754.7339
Mexico Americas 1972 62.36100 55984294 6809.4067
Mexico Americas 1977 65.03200 63759976 7674.9291
Mexico Americas 1982 67.40500 71640904 9611.1475
Mexico Americas 1987 69.49800 80122492 8688.1560
Mexico Americas 1992 71.45500 88111030 9472.3843
Mexico Americas 1997 73.67000 95895146 9767.2975
Mexico Americas 2002 74.90200 102479927 10742.4405
Mexico Americas 2007 76.19500 108700891 11977.5750
Mongolia Asia 1952 42.24400 800663 786.5669
Mongolia Asia 1957 45.24800 882134 912.6626
Mongolia Asia 1962 48.25100 1010280 1056.3540
Mongolia Asia 1967 51.25300 1149500 1226.0411
Mongolia Asia 1972 53.75400 1320500 1421.7420
Mongolia Asia 1977 55.49100 1528000 1647.5117
Mongolia Asia 1982 57.48900 1756032 2000.6031
Mongolia Asia 1987 60.22200 2015133 2338.0083
Mongolia Asia 1992 61.27100 2312802 1785.4020
Mongolia Asia 1997 63.62500 2494803 1902.2521
Mongolia Asia 2002 65.03300 2674234 2140.7393
Mongolia Asia 2007 66.80300 2874127 3095.7723
Montenegro Europe 1952 59.16400 413834 2647.5856
Montenegro Europe 1957 61.44800 442829 3682.2599
Montenegro Europe 1962 63.72800 474528 4649.5938
Montenegro Europe 1967 67.17800 501035 5907.8509
Montenegro Europe 1972 70.63600 527678 7778.4140
Montenegro Europe 1977 73.06600 560073 9595.9299
Montenegro Europe 1982 74.10100 562548 11222.5876
Montenegro Europe 1987 74.86500 569473 11732.5102
Montenegro Europe 1992 75.43500 621621 7003.3390
Montenegro Europe 1997 75.44500 692651 6465.6133
Montenegro Europe 2002 73.98100 720230 6557.1943
Montenegro Europe 2007 74.54300 684736 9253.8961
Morocco Africa 1952 42.87300 9939217 1688.2036
Morocco Africa 1957 45.42300 11406350 1642.0023
Morocco Africa 1962 47.92400 13056604 1566.3535
Morocco Africa 1967 50.33500 14770296 1711.0448
Morocco Africa 1972 52.86200 16660670 1930.1950
Morocco Africa 1977 55.73000 18396941 2370.6200
Morocco Africa 1982 59.65000 20198730 2702.6204
Morocco Africa 1987 62.67700 22987397 2755.0470
Morocco Africa 1992 65.39300 25798239 2948.0473
Morocco Africa 1997 67.66000 28529501 2982.1019
Morocco Africa 2002 69.61500 31167783 3258.4956
Morocco Africa 2007 71.16400 33757175 3820.1752
Mozambique Africa 1952 31.28600 6446316 468.5260
Mozambique Africa 1957 33.77900 7038035 495.5868
Mozambique Africa 1962 36.16100 7788944 556.6864
Mozambique Africa 1967 38.11300 8680909 566.6692
Mozambique Africa 1972 40.32800 9809596 724.9178
Mozambique Africa 1977 42.49500 11127868 502.3197
Mozambique Africa 1982 42.79500 12587223 462.2114
Mozambique Africa 1987 42.86100 12891952 389.8762
Mozambique Africa 1992 44.28400 13160731 410.8968
Mozambique Africa 1997 46.34400 16603334 472.3461
Mozambique Africa 2002 44.02600 18473780 633.6179
Mozambique Africa 2007 42.08200 19951656 823.6856
Myanmar Asia 1952 36.31900 20092996 331.0000
Myanmar Asia 1957 41.90500 21731844 350.0000
Myanmar Asia 1962 45.10800 23634436 388.0000
Myanmar Asia 1967 49.37900 25870271 349.0000
Myanmar Asia 1972 53.07000 28466390 357.0000
Myanmar Asia 1977 56.05900 31528087 371.0000
Myanmar Asia 1982 58.05600 34680442 424.0000
Myanmar Asia 1987 58.33900 38028578 385.0000
Myanmar Asia 1992 59.32000 40546538 347.0000
Myanmar Asia 1997 60.32800 43247867 415.0000
Myanmar Asia 2002 59.90800 45598081 611.0000
Myanmar Asia 2007 62.06900 47761980 944.0000
Namibia Africa 1952 41.72500 485831 2423.7804
Namibia Africa 1957 45.22600 548080 2621.4481
Namibia Africa 1962 48.38600 621392 3173.2156
Namibia Africa 1967 51.15900 706640 3793.6948
Namibia Africa 1972 53.86700 821782 3746.0809
Namibia Africa 1977 56.43700 977026 3876.4860
Namibia Africa 1982 58.96800 1099010 4191.1005
Namibia Africa 1987 60.83500 1278184 3693.7313
Namibia Africa 1992 61.99900 1554253 3804.5380
Namibia Africa 1997 58.90900 1774766 3899.5243
Namibia Africa 2002 51.47900 1972153 4072.3248
Namibia Africa 2007 52.90600 2055080 4811.0604
Nepal Asia 1952 36.15700 9182536 545.8657
Nepal Asia 1957 37.68600 9682338 597.9364
Nepal Asia 1962 39.39300 10332057 652.3969
Nepal Asia 1967 41.47200 11261690 676.4422
Nepal Asia 1972 43.97100 12412593 674.7881
Nepal Asia 1977 46.74800 13933198 694.1124
Nepal Asia 1982 49.59400 15796314 718.3731
Nepal Asia 1987 52.53700 17917180 775.6325
Nepal Asia 1992 55.72700 20326209 897.7404
Nepal Asia 1997 59.42600 23001113 1010.8921
Nepal Asia 2002 61.34000 25873917 1057.2063
Nepal Asia 2007 63.78500 28901790 1091.3598
Netherlands Europe 1952 72.13000 10381988 8941.5719
Netherlands Europe 1957 72.99000 11026383 11276.1934
Netherlands Europe 1962 73.23000 11805689 12790.8496
Netherlands Europe 1967 73.82000 12596822 15363.2514
Netherlands Europe 1972 73.75000 13329874 18794.7457
Netherlands Europe 1977 75.24000 13852989 21209.0592
Netherlands Europe 1982 76.05000 14310401 21399.4605
Netherlands Europe 1987 76.83000 14665278 23651.3236
Netherlands Europe 1992 77.42000 15174244 26790.9496
Netherlands Europe 1997 78.03000 15604464 30246.1306
Netherlands Europe 2002 78.53000 16122830 33724.7578
Netherlands Europe 2007 79.76200 16570613 36797.9333
New Zealand Oceania 1952 69.39000 1994794 10556.5757
New Zealand Oceania 1957 70.26000 2229407 12247.3953
New Zealand Oceania 1962 71.24000 2488550 13175.6780
New Zealand Oceania 1967 71.52000 2728150 14463.9189
New Zealand Oceania 1972 71.89000 2929100 16046.0373
New Zealand Oceania 1977 72.22000 3164900 16233.7177
New Zealand Oceania 1982 73.84000 3210650 17632.4104
New Zealand Oceania 1987 74.32000 3317166 19007.1913
New Zealand Oceania 1992 76.33000 3437674 18363.3249
New Zealand Oceania 1997 77.55000 3676187 21050.4138
New Zealand Oceania 2002 79.11000 3908037 23189.8014
New Zealand Oceania 2007 80.20400 4115771 25185.0091
Nicaragua Americas 1952 42.31400 1165790 3112.3639
Nicaragua Americas 1957 45.43200 1358828 3457.4159
Nicaragua Americas 1962 48.63200 1590597 3634.3644
Nicaragua Americas 1967 51.88400 1865490 4643.3935
Nicaragua Americas 1972 55.15100 2182908 4688.5933
Nicaragua Americas 1977 57.47000 2554598 5486.3711
Nicaragua Americas 1982 59.29800 2979423 3470.3382
Nicaragua Americas 1987 62.00800 3344353 2955.9844
Nicaragua Americas 1992 65.84300 4017939 2170.1517
Nicaragua Americas 1997 68.42600 4609572 2253.0230
Nicaragua Americas 2002 70.83600 5146848 2474.5488
Nicaragua Americas 2007 72.89900 5675356 2749.3210
Niger Africa 1952 37.44400 3379468 761.8794
Niger Africa 1957 38.59800 3692184 835.5234
Niger Africa 1962 39.48700 4076008 997.7661
Niger Africa 1967 40.11800 4534062 1054.3849
Niger Africa 1972 40.54600 5060262 954.2092
Niger Africa 1977 41.29100 5682086 808.8971
Niger Africa 1982 42.59800 6437188 909.7221
Niger Africa 1987 44.55500 7332638 668.3000
Niger Africa 1992 47.39100 8392818 581.1827
Niger Africa 1997 51.31300 9666252 580.3052
Niger Africa 2002 54.49600 11140655 601.0745
Niger Africa 2007 56.86700 12894865 619.6769
Nigeria Africa 1952 36.32400 33119096 1077.2819
Nigeria Africa 1957 37.80200 37173340 1100.5926
Nigeria Africa 1962 39.36000 41871351 1150.9275
Nigeria Africa 1967 41.04000 47287752 1014.5141
Nigeria Africa 1972 42.82100 53740085 1698.3888
Nigeria Africa 1977 44.51400 62209173 1981.9518
Nigeria Africa 1982 45.82600 73039376 1576.9738
Nigeria Africa 1987 46.88600 81551520 1385.0296
Nigeria Africa 1992 47.47200 93364244 1619.8482
Nigeria Africa 1997 47.46400 106207839 1624.9413
Nigeria Africa 2002 46.60800 119901274 1615.2864
Nigeria Africa 2007 46.85900 135031164 2013.9773
Norway Europe 1952 72.67000 3327728 10095.4217
Norway Europe 1957 73.44000 3491938 11653.9730
Norway Europe 1962 73.47000 3638919 13450.4015
Norway Europe 1967 74.08000 3786019 16361.8765
Norway Europe 1972 74.34000 3933004 18965.0555
Norway Europe 1977 75.37000 4043205 23311.3494
Norway Europe 1982 75.97000 4114787 26298.6353
Norway Europe 1987 75.89000 4186147 31540.9748
Norway Europe 1992 77.32000 4286357 33965.6611
Norway Europe 1997 78.32000 4405672 41283.1643
Norway Europe 2002 79.05000 4535591 44683.9753
Norway Europe 2007 80.19600 4627926 49357.1902
Oman Asia 1952 37.57800 507833 1828.2303
Oman Asia 1957 40.08000 561977 2242.7466
Oman Asia 1962 43.16500 628164 2924.6381
Oman Asia 1967 46.98800 714775 4720.9427
Oman Asia 1972 52.14300 829050 10618.0385
Oman Asia 1977 57.36700 1004533 11848.3439
Oman Asia 1982 62.72800 1301048 12954.7910
Oman Asia 1987 67.73400 1593882 18115.2231
Oman Asia 1992 71.19700 1915208 18616.7069
Oman Asia 1997 72.49900 2283635 19702.0558
Oman Asia 2002 74.19300 2713462 19774.8369
Oman Asia 2007 75.64000 3204897 22316.1929
Pakistan Asia 1952 43.43600 41346560 684.5971
Pakistan Asia 1957 45.55700 46679944 747.0835
Pakistan Asia 1962 47.67000 53100671 803.3427
Pakistan Asia 1967 49.80000 60641899 942.4083
Pakistan Asia 1972 51.92900 69325921 1049.9390
Pakistan Asia 1977 54.04300 78152686 1175.9212
Pakistan Asia 1982 56.15800 91462088 1443.4298
Pakistan Asia 1987 58.24500 105186881 1704.6866
Pakistan Asia 1992 60.83800 120065004 1971.8295
Pakistan Asia 1997 61.81800 135564834 2049.3505
Pakistan Asia 2002 63.61000 153403524 2092.7124
Pakistan Asia 2007 65.48300 169270617 2605.9476
Panama Americas 1952 55.19100 940080 2480.3803
Panama Americas 1957 59.20100 1063506 2961.8009
Panama Americas 1962 61.81700 1215725 3536.5403
Panama Americas 1967 64.07100 1405486 4421.0091
Panama Americas 1972 66.21600 1616384 5364.2497
Panama Americas 1977 68.68100 1839782 5351.9121
Panama Americas 1982 70.47200 2036305 7009.6016
Panama Americas 1987 71.52300 2253639 7034.7792
Panama Americas 1992 72.46200 2484997 6618.7431
Panama Americas 1997 73.73800 2734531 7113.6923
Panama Americas 2002 74.71200 2990875 7356.0319
Panama Americas 2007 75.53700 3242173 9809.1856
Paraguay Americas 1952 62.64900 1555876 1952.3087
Paraguay Americas 1957 63.19600 1770902 2046.1547
Paraguay Americas 1962 64.36100 2009813 2148.0271
Paraguay Americas 1967 64.95100 2287985 2299.3763
Paraguay Americas 1972 65.81500 2614104 2523.3380
Paraguay Americas 1977 66.35300 2984494 3248.3733
Paraguay Americas 1982 66.87400 3366439 4258.5036
Paraguay Americas 1987 67.37800 3886512 3998.8757
Paraguay Americas 1992 68.22500 4483945 4196.4111
Paraguay Americas 1997 69.40000 5154123 4247.4003
Paraguay Americas 2002 70.75500 5884491 3783.6742
Paraguay Americas 2007 71.75200 6667147 4172.8385
Peru Americas 1952 43.90200 8025700 3758.5234
Peru Americas 1957 46.26300 9146100 4245.2567
Peru Americas 1962 49.09600 10516500 4957.0380
Peru Americas 1967 51.44500 12132200 5788.0933
Peru Americas 1972 55.44800 13954700 5937.8273
Peru Americas 1977 58.44700 15990099 6281.2909
Peru Americas 1982 61.40600 18125129 6434.5018
Peru Americas 1987 64.13400 20195924 6360.9434
Peru Americas 1992 66.45800 22430449 4446.3809
Peru Americas 1997 68.38600 24748122 5838.3477
Peru Americas 2002 69.90600 26769436 5909.0201
Peru Americas 2007 71.42100 28674757 7408.9056
Philippines Asia 1952 47.75200 22438691 1272.8810
Philippines Asia 1957 51.33400 26072194 1547.9448
Philippines Asia 1962 54.75700 30325264 1649.5522
Philippines Asia 1967 56.39300 35356600 1814.1274
Philippines Asia 1972 58.06500 40850141 1989.3741
Philippines Asia 1977 60.06000 46850962 2373.2043
Philippines Asia 1982 62.08200 53456774 2603.2738
Philippines Asia 1987 64.15100 60017788 2189.6350
Philippines Asia 1992 66.45800 67185766 2279.3240
Philippines Asia 1997 68.56400 75012988 2536.5349
Philippines Asia 2002 70.30300 82995088 2650.9211
Philippines Asia 2007 71.68800 91077287 3190.4810
Poland Europe 1952 61.31000 25730551 4029.3297
Poland Europe 1957 65.77000 28235346 4734.2530
Poland Europe 1962 67.64000 30329617 5338.7521
Poland Europe 1967 69.61000 31785378 6557.1528
Poland Europe 1972 70.85000 33039545 8006.5070
Poland Europe 1977 70.67000 34621254 9508.1415
Poland Europe 1982 71.32000 36227381 8451.5310
Poland Europe 1987 70.98000 37740710 9082.3512
Poland Europe 1992 70.99000 38370697 7738.8812
Poland Europe 1997 72.75000 38654957 10159.5837
Poland Europe 2002 74.67000 38625976 12002.2391
Poland Europe 2007 75.56300 38518241 15389.9247
Portugal Europe 1952 59.82000 8526050 3068.3199
Portugal Europe 1957 61.51000 8817650 3774.5717
Portugal Europe 1962 64.39000 9019800 4727.9549
Portugal Europe 1967 66.60000 9103000 6361.5180
Portugal Europe 1972 69.26000 8970450 9022.2474
Portugal Europe 1977 70.41000 9662600 10172.4857
Portugal Europe 1982 72.77000 9859650 11753.8429
Portugal Europe 1987 74.06000 9915289 13039.3088
Portugal Europe 1992 74.86000 9927680 16207.2666
Portugal Europe 1997 75.97000 10156415 17641.0316
Portugal Europe 2002 77.29000 10433867 19970.9079
Portugal Europe 2007 78.09800 10642836 20509.6478
Puerto Rico Americas 1952 64.28000 2227000 3081.9598
Puerto Rico Americas 1957 68.54000 2260000 3907.1562
Puerto Rico Americas 1962 69.62000 2448046 5108.3446
Puerto Rico Americas 1967 71.10000 2648961 6929.2777
Puerto Rico Americas 1972 72.16000 2847132 9123.0417
Puerto Rico Americas 1977 73.44000 3080828 9770.5249
Puerto Rico Americas 1982 73.75000 3279001 10330.9891
Puerto Rico Americas 1987 74.63000 3444468 12281.3419
Puerto Rico Americas 1992 73.91100 3585176 14641.5871
Puerto Rico Americas 1997 74.91700 3759430 16999.4333
Puerto Rico Americas 2002 77.77800 3859606 18855.6062
Puerto Rico Americas 2007 78.74600 3942491 19328.7090
Reunion Africa 1952 52.72400 257700 2718.8853
Reunion Africa 1957 55.09000 308700 2769.4518
Reunion Africa 1962 57.66600 358900 3173.7233
Reunion Africa 1967 60.54200 414024 4021.1757
Reunion Africa 1972 64.27400 461633 5047.6586
Reunion Africa 1977 67.06400 492095 4319.8041
Reunion Africa 1982 69.88500 517810 5267.2194
Reunion Africa 1987 71.91300 562035 5303.3775
Reunion Africa 1992 73.61500 622191 6101.2558
Reunion Africa 1997 74.77200 684810 6071.9414
Reunion Africa 2002 75.74400 743981 6316.1652
Reunion Africa 2007 76.44200 798094 7670.1226
Romania Europe 1952 61.05000 16630000 3144.6132
Romania Europe 1957 64.10000 17829327 3943.3702
Romania Europe 1962 66.80000 18680721 4734.9976
Romania Europe 1967 66.80000 19284814 6470.8665
Romania Europe 1972 69.21000 20662648 8011.4144
Romania Europe 1977 69.46000 21658597 9356.3972
Romania Europe 1982 69.66000 22356726 9605.3141
Romania Europe 1987 69.53000 22686371 9696.2733
Romania Europe 1992 69.36000 22797027 6598.4099
Romania Europe 1997 69.72000 22562458 7346.5476
Romania Europe 2002 71.32200 22404337 7885.3601
Romania Europe 2007 72.47600 22276056 10808.4756
Rwanda Africa 1952 40.00000 2534927 493.3239
Rwanda Africa 1957 41.50000 2822082 540.2894
Rwanda Africa 1962 43.00000 3051242 597.4731
Rwanda Africa 1967 44.10000 3451079 510.9637
Rwanda Africa 1972 44.60000 3992121 590.5807
Rwanda Africa 1977 45.00000 4657072 670.0806
Rwanda Africa 1982 46.21800 5507565 881.5706
Rwanda Africa 1987 44.02000 6349365 847.9912
Rwanda Africa 1992 23.59900 7290203 737.0686
Rwanda Africa 1997 36.08700 7212583 589.9445
Rwanda Africa 2002 43.41300 7852401 785.6538
Rwanda Africa 2007 46.24200 8860588 863.0885
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1952 46.47100 60011 879.5836
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1957 48.94500 61325 860.7369
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1962 51.89300 65345 1071.5511
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1967 54.42500 70787 1384.8406
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1972 56.48000 76595 1532.9853
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1977 58.55000 86796 1737.5617
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1982 60.35100 98593 1890.2181
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1987 61.72800 110812 1516.5255
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1992 62.74200 125911 1428.7778
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 1997 63.30600 145608 1339.0760
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 2002 64.33700 170372 1353.0924
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 2007 65.52800 199579 1598.4351
Saudi Arabia Asia 1952 39.87500 4005677 6459.5548
Saudi Arabia Asia 1957 42.86800 4419650 8157.5912
Saudi Arabia Asia 1962 45.91400 4943029 11626.4197
Saudi Arabia Asia 1967 49.90100 5618198 16903.0489
Saudi Arabia Asia 1972 53.88600 6472756 24837.4287
Saudi Arabia Asia 1977 58.69000 8128505 34167.7626
Saudi Arabia Asia 1982 63.01200 11254672 33693.1753
Saudi Arabia Asia 1987 66.29500 14619745 21198.2614
Saudi Arabia Asia 1992 68.76800 16945857 24841.6178
Saudi Arabia Asia 1997 70.53300 21229759 20586.6902
Saudi Arabia Asia 2002 71.62600 24501530 19014.5412
Saudi Arabia Asia 2007 72.77700 27601038 21654.8319
Senegal Africa 1952 37.27800 2755589 1450.3570
Senegal Africa 1957 39.32900 3054547 1567.6530
Senegal Africa 1962 41.45400 3430243 1654.9887
Senegal Africa 1967 43.56300 3965841 1612.4046
Senegal Africa 1972 45.81500 4588696 1597.7121
Senegal Africa 1977 48.87900 5260855 1561.7691
Senegal Africa 1982 52.37900 6147783 1518.4800
Senegal Africa 1987 55.76900 7171347 1441.7207
Senegal Africa 1992 58.19600 8307920 1367.8994
Senegal Africa 1997 60.18700 9535314 1392.3683
Senegal Africa 2002 61.60000 10870037 1519.6353
Senegal Africa 2007 63.06200 12267493 1712.4721
Serbia Europe 1952 57.99600 6860147 3581.4594
Serbia Europe 1957 61.68500 7271135 4981.0909
Serbia Europe 1962 64.53100 7616060 6289.6292
Serbia Europe 1967 66.91400 7971222 7991.7071
Serbia Europe 1972 68.70000 8313288 10522.0675
Serbia Europe 1977 70.30000 8686367 12980.6696
Serbia Europe 1982 70.16200 9032824 15181.0927
Serbia Europe 1987 71.21800 9230783 15870.8785
Serbia Europe 1992 71.65900 9826397 9325.0682
Serbia Europe 1997 72.23200 10336594 7914.3203
Serbia Europe 2002 73.21300 10111559 7236.0753
Serbia Europe 2007 74.00200 10150265 9786.5347
Sierra Leone Africa 1952 30.33100 2143249 879.7877
Sierra Leone Africa 1957 31.57000 2295678 1004.4844
Sierra Leone Africa 1962 32.76700 2467895 1116.6399
Sierra Leone Africa 1967 34.11300 2662190 1206.0435
Sierra Leone Africa 1972 35.40000 2879013 1353.7598
Sierra Leone Africa 1977 36.78800 3140897 1348.2852
Sierra Leone Africa 1982 38.44500 3464522 1465.0108
Sierra Leone Africa 1987 40.00600 3868905 1294.4478
Sierra Leone Africa 1992 38.33300 4260884 1068.6963
Sierra Leone Africa 1997 39.89700 4578212 574.6482
Sierra Leone Africa 2002 41.01200 5359092 699.4897
Sierra Leone Africa 2007 42.56800 6144562 862.5408
Singapore Asia 1952 60.39600 1127000 2315.1382
Singapore Asia 1957 63.17900 1445929 2843.1044
Singapore Asia 1962 65.79800 1750200 3674.7356
Singapore Asia 1967 67.94600 1977600 4977.4185
Singapore Asia 1972 69.52100 2152400 8597.7562
Singapore Asia 1977 70.79500 2325300 11210.0895
Singapore Asia 1982 71.76000 2651869 15169.1611
Singapore Asia 1987 73.56000 2794552 18861.5308
Singapore Asia 1992 75.78800 3235865 24769.8912
Singapore Asia 1997 77.15800 3802309 33519.4766
Singapore Asia 2002 78.77000 4197776 36023.1054
Singapore Asia 2007 79.97200 4553009 47143.1796
Slovak Republic Europe 1952 64.36000 3558137 5074.6591
Slovak Republic Europe 1957 67.45000 3844277 6093.2630
Slovak Republic Europe 1962 70.33000 4237384 7481.1076
Slovak Republic Europe 1967 70.98000 4442238 8412.9024
Slovak Republic Europe 1972 70.35000 4593433 9674.1676
Slovak Republic Europe 1977 70.45000 4827803 10922.6640
Slovak Republic Europe 1982 70.80000 5048043 11348.5459
Slovak Republic Europe 1987 71.08000 5199318 12037.2676
Slovak Republic Europe 1992 71.38000 5302888 9498.4677
Slovak Republic Europe 1997 72.71000 5383010 12126.2306
Slovak Republic Europe 2002 73.80000 5410052 13638.7784
Slovak Republic Europe 2007 74.66300 5447502 18678.3144
Slovenia Europe 1952 65.57000 1489518 4215.0417
Slovenia Europe 1957 67.85000 1533070 5862.2766
Slovenia Europe 1962 69.15000 1582962 7402.3034
Slovenia Europe 1967 69.18000 1646912 9405.4894
Slovenia Europe 1972 69.82000 1694510 12383.4862
Slovenia Europe 1977 70.97000 1746919 15277.0302
Slovenia Europe 1982 71.06300 1861252 17866.7218
Slovenia Europe 1987 72.25000 1945870 18678.5349
Slovenia Europe 1992 73.64000 1999210 14214.7168
Slovenia Europe 1997 75.13000 2011612 17161.1073
Slovenia Europe 2002 76.66000 2011497 20660.0194
Slovenia Europe 2007 77.92600 2009245 25768.2576
Somalia Africa 1952 32.97800 2526994 1135.7498
Somalia Africa 1957 34.97700 2780415 1258.1474
Somalia Africa 1962 36.98100 3080153 1369.4883
Somalia Africa 1967 38.97700 3428839 1284.7332
Somalia Africa 1972 40.97300 3840161 1254.5761
Somalia Africa 1977 41.97400 4353666 1450.9925
Somalia Africa 1982 42.95500 5828892 1176.8070
Somalia Africa 1987 44.50100 6921858 1093.2450
Somalia Africa 1992 39.65800 6099799 926.9603
Somalia Africa 1997 43.79500 6633514 930.5964
Somalia Africa 2002 45.93600 7753310 882.0818
Somalia Africa 2007 48.15900 9118773 926.1411
South Africa Africa 1952 45.00900 14264935 4725.2955
South Africa Africa 1957 47.98500 16151549 5487.1042
South Africa Africa 1962 49.95100 18356657 5768.7297
South Africa Africa 1967 51.92700 20997321 7114.4780
South Africa Africa 1972 53.69600 23935810 7765.9626
South Africa Africa 1977 55.52700 27129932 8028.6514
South Africa Africa 1982 58.16100 31140029 8568.2662
South Africa Africa 1987 60.83400 35933379 7825.8234
South Africa Africa 1992 61.88800 39964159 7225.0693
South Africa Africa 1997 60.23600 42835005 7479.1882
South Africa Africa 2002 53.36500 44433622 7710.9464
South Africa Africa 2007 49.33900 43997828 9269.6578
Spain Europe 1952 64.94000 28549870 3834.0347
Spain Europe 1957 66.66000 29841614 4564.8024
Spain Europe 1962 69.69000 31158061 5693.8439
Spain Europe 1967 71.44000 32850275 7993.5123
Spain Europe 1972 73.06000 34513161 10638.7513
Spain Europe 1977 74.39000 36439000 13236.9212
Spain Europe 1982 76.30000 37983310 13926.1700
Spain Europe 1987 76.90000 38880702 15764.9831
Spain Europe 1992 77.57000 39549438 18603.0645
Spain Europe 1997 78.77000 39855442 20445.2990
Spain Europe 2002 79.78000 40152517 24835.4717
Spain Europe 2007 80.94100 40448191 28821.0637
Sri Lanka Asia 1952 57.59300 7982342 1083.5320
Sri Lanka Asia 1957 61.45600 9128546 1072.5466
Sri Lanka Asia 1962 62.19200 10421936 1074.4720
Sri Lanka Asia 1967 64.26600 11737396 1135.5143
Sri Lanka Asia 1972 65.04200 13016733 1213.3955
Sri Lanka Asia 1977 65.94900 14116836 1348.7757
Sri Lanka Asia 1982 68.75700 15410151 1648.0798
Sri Lanka Asia 1987 69.01100 16495304 1876.7668
Sri Lanka Asia 1992 70.37900 17587060 2153.7392
Sri Lanka Asia 1997 70.45700 18698655 2664.4773
Sri Lanka Asia 2002 70.81500 19576783 3015.3788
Sri Lanka Asia 2007 72.39600 20378239 3970.0954
Sudan Africa 1952 38.63500 8504667 1615.9911
Sudan Africa 1957 39.62400 9753392 1770.3371
Sudan Africa 1962 40.87000 11183227 1959.5938
Sudan Africa 1967 42.85800 12716129 1687.9976
Sudan Africa 1972 45.08300 14597019 1659.6528
Sudan Africa 1977 47.80000 17104986 2202.9884
Sudan Africa 1982 50.33800 20367053 1895.5441
Sudan Africa 1987 51.74400 24725960 1507.8192
Sudan Africa 1992 53.55600 28227588 1492.1970
Sudan Africa 1997 55.37300 32160729 1632.2108
Sudan Africa 2002 56.36900 37090298 1993.3983
Sudan Africa 2007 58.55600 42292929 2602.3950
Swaziland Africa 1952 41.40700 290243 1148.3766
Swaziland Africa 1957 43.42400 326741 1244.7084
Swaziland Africa 1962 44.99200 370006 1856.1821
Swaziland Africa 1967 46.63300 420690 2613.1017
Swaziland Africa 1972 49.55200 480105 3364.8366
Swaziland Africa 1977 52.53700 551425 3781.4106
Swaziland Africa 1982 55.56100 649901 3895.3840
Swaziland Africa 1987 57.67800 779348 3984.8398
Swaziland Africa 1992 58.47400 962344 3553.0224
Swaziland Africa 1997 54.28900 1054486 3876.7685
Swaziland Africa 2002 43.86900 1130269 4128.1169
Swaziland Africa 2007 39.61300 1133066 4513.4806
Sweden Europe 1952 71.86000 7124673 8527.8447
Sweden Europe 1957 72.49000 7363802 9911.8782
Sweden Europe 1962 73.37000 7561588 12329.4419
Sweden Europe 1967 74.16000 7867931 15258.2970
Sweden Europe 1972 74.72000 8122293 17832.0246
Sweden Europe 1977 75.44000 8251648 18855.7252
Sweden Europe 1982 76.42000 8325260 20667.3812
Sweden Europe 1987 77.19000 8421403 23586.9293
Sweden Europe 1992 78.16000 8718867 23880.0168
Sweden Europe 1997 79.39000 8897619 25266.5950
Sweden Europe 2002 80.04000 8954175 29341.6309
Sweden Europe 2007 80.88400 9031088 33859.7484
Switzerland Europe 1952 69.62000 4815000 14734.2327
Switzerland Europe 1957 70.56000 5126000 17909.4897
Switzerland Europe 1962 71.32000 5666000 20431.0927
Switzerland Europe 1967 72.77000 6063000 22966.1443
Switzerland Europe 1972 73.78000 6401400 27195.1130
Switzerland Europe 1977 75.39000 6316424 26982.2905
Switzerland Europe 1982 76.21000 6468126 28397.7151
Switzerland Europe 1987 77.41000 6649942 30281.7046
Switzerland Europe 1992 78.03000 6995447 31871.5303
Switzerland Europe 1997 79.37000 7193761 32135.3230
Switzerland Europe 2002 80.62000 7361757 34480.9577
Switzerland Europe 2007 81.70100 7554661 37506.4191
Syria Asia 1952 45.88300 3661549 1643.4854
Syria Asia 1957 48.28400 4149908 2117.2349
Syria Asia 1962 50.30500 4834621 2193.0371
Syria Asia 1967 53.65500 5680812 1881.9236
Syria Asia 1972 57.29600 6701172 2571.4230
Syria Asia 1977 61.19500 7932503 3195.4846
Syria Asia 1982 64.59000 9410494 3761.8377
Syria Asia 1987 66.97400 11242847 3116.7743
Syria Asia 1992 69.24900 13219062 3340.5428
Syria Asia 1997 71.52700 15081016 4014.2390
Syria Asia 2002 73.05300 17155814 4090.9253
Syria Asia 2007 74.14300 19314747 4184.5481
Taiwan Asia 1952 58.50000 8550362 1206.9479
Taiwan Asia 1957 62.40000 10164215 1507.8613
Taiwan Asia 1962 65.20000 11918938 1822.8790
Taiwan Asia 1967 67.50000 13648692 2643.8587
Taiwan Asia 1972 69.39000 15226039 4062.5239
Taiwan Asia 1977 70.59000 16785196 5596.5198
Taiwan Asia 1982 72.16000 18501390 7426.3548
Taiwan Asia 1987 73.40000 19757799 11054.5618
Taiwan Asia 1992 74.26000 20686918 15215.6579
Taiwan Asia 1997 75.25000 21628605 20206.8210
Taiwan Asia 2002 76.99000 22454239 23235.4233
Taiwan Asia 2007 78.40000 23174294 28718.2768
Tanzania Africa 1952 41.21500 8322925 716.6501
Tanzania Africa 1957 42.97400 9452826 698.5356
Tanzania Africa 1962 44.24600 10863958 722.0038
Tanzania Africa 1967 45.75700 12607312 848.2187
Tanzania Africa 1972 47.62000 14706593 915.9851
Tanzania Africa 1977 49.91900 17129565 962.4923
Tanzania Africa 1982 50.60800 19844382 874.2426
Tanzania Africa 1987 51.53500 23040630 831.8221
Tanzania Africa 1992 50.44000 26605473 825.6825
Tanzania Africa 1997 48.46600 30686889 789.1862
Tanzania Africa 2002 49.65100 34593779 899.0742
Tanzania Africa 2007 52.51700 38139640 1107.4822
Thailand Asia 1952 50.84800 21289402 757.7974
Thailand Asia 1957 53.63000 25041917 793.5774
Thailand Asia 1962 56.06100 29263397 1002.1992
Thailand Asia 1967 58.28500 34024249 1295.4607
Thailand Asia 1972 60.40500 39276153 1524.3589
Thailand Asia 1977 62.49400 44148285 1961.2246
Thailand Asia 1982 64.59700 48827160 2393.2198
Thailand Asia 1987 66.08400 52910342 2982.6538
Thailand Asia 1992 67.29800 56667095 4616.8965
Thailand Asia 1997 67.52100 60216677 5852.6255
Thailand Asia 2002 68.56400 62806748 5913.1875
Thailand Asia 2007 70.61600 65068149 7458.3963
Togo Africa 1952 38.59600 1219113 859.8087
Togo Africa 1957 41.20800 1357445 925.9083
Togo Africa 1962 43.92200 1528098 1067.5348
Togo Africa 1967 46.76900 1735550 1477.5968
Togo Africa 1972 49.75900 2056351 1649.6602
Togo Africa 1977 52.88700 2308582 1532.7770
Togo Africa 1982 55.47100 2644765 1344.5780
Togo Africa 1987 56.94100 3154264 1202.2014
Togo Africa 1992 58.06100 3747553 1034.2989
Togo Africa 1997 58.39000 4320890 982.2869
Togo Africa 2002 57.56100 4977378 886.2206
Togo Africa 2007 58.42000 5701579 882.9699
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1952 59.10000 662850 3023.2719
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1957 61.80000 764900 4100.3934
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1962 64.90000 887498 4997.5240
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1967 65.40000 960155 5621.3685
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1972 65.90000 975199 6619.5514
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1977 68.30000 1039009 7899.5542
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1982 68.83200 1116479 9119.5286
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1987 69.58200 1191336 7388.5978
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1992 69.86200 1183669 7370.9909
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1997 69.46500 1138101 8792.5731
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 2002 68.97600 1101832 11460.6002
Trinidad and Tobago Americas 2007 69.81900 1056608 18008.5092
Tunisia Africa 1952 44.60000 3647735 1468.4756
Tunisia Africa 1957 47.10000 3950849 1395.2325
Tunisia Africa 1962 49.57900 4286552 1660.3032
Tunisia Africa 1967 52.05300 4786986 1932.3602
Tunisia Africa 1972 55.60200 5303507 2753.2860
Tunisia Africa 1977 59.83700 6005061 3120.8768
Tunisia Africa 1982 64.04800 6734098 3560.2332
Tunisia Africa 1987 66.89400 7724976 3810.4193
Tunisia Africa 1992 70.00100 8523077 4332.7202
Tunisia Africa 1997 71.97300 9231669 4876.7986
Tunisia Africa 2002 73.04200 9770575 5722.8957
Tunisia Africa 2007 73.92300 10276158 7092.9230
Turkey Europe 1952 43.58500 22235677 1969.1010
Turkey Europe 1957 48.07900 25670939 2218.7543
Turkey Europe 1962 52.09800 29788695 2322.8699
Turkey Europe 1967 54.33600 33411317 2826.3564
Turkey Europe 1972 57.00500 37492953 3450.6964
Turkey Europe 1977 59.50700 42404033 4269.1223
Turkey Europe 1982 61.03600 47328791 4241.3563
Turkey Europe 1987 63.10800 52881328 5089.0437
Turkey Europe 1992 66.14600 58179144 5678.3483
Turkey Europe 1997 68.83500 63047647 6601.4299
Turkey Europe 2002 70.84500 67308928 6508.0857
Turkey Europe 2007 71.77700 71158647 8458.2764
Uganda Africa 1952 39.97800 5824797 734.7535
Uganda Africa 1957 42.57100 6675501 774.3711
Uganda Africa 1962 45.34400 7688797 767.2717
Uganda Africa 1967 48.05100 8900294 908.9185
Uganda Africa 1972 51.01600 10190285 950.7359
Uganda Africa 1977 50.35000 11457758 843.7331
Uganda Africa 1982 49.84900 12939400 682.2662
Uganda Africa 1987 51.50900 15283050 617.7244
Uganda Africa 1992 48.82500 18252190 644.1708
Uganda Africa 1997 44.57800 21210254 816.5591
Uganda Africa 2002 47.81300 24739869 927.7210
Uganda Africa 2007 51.54200 29170398 1056.3801
United Kingdom Europe 1952 69.18000 50430000 9979.5085
United Kingdom Europe 1957 70.42000 51430000 11283.1779
United Kingdom Europe 1962 70.76000 53292000 12477.1771
United Kingdom Europe 1967 71.36000 54959000 14142.8509
United Kingdom Europe 1972 72.01000 56079000 15895.1164
United Kingdom Europe 1977 72.76000 56179000 17428.7485
United Kingdom Europe 1982 74.04000 56339704 18232.4245
United Kingdom Europe 1987 75.00700 56981620 21664.7877
United Kingdom Europe 1992 76.42000 57866349 22705.0925
United Kingdom Europe 1997 77.21800 58808266 26074.5314
United Kingdom Europe 2002 78.47100 59912431 29478.9992
United Kingdom Europe 2007 79.42500 60776238 33203.2613
United States Americas 1952 68.44000 157553000 13990.4821
United States Americas 1957 69.49000 171984000 14847.1271
United States Americas 1962 70.21000 186538000 16173.1459
United States Americas 1967 70.76000 198712000 19530.3656
United States Americas 1972 71.34000 209896000 21806.0359
United States Americas 1977 73.38000 220239000 24072.6321
United States Americas 1982 74.65000 232187835 25009.5591
United States Americas 1987 75.02000 242803533 29884.3504
United States Americas 1992 76.09000 256894189 32003.9322
United States Americas 1997 76.81000 272911760 35767.4330
United States Americas 2002 77.31000 287675526 39097.0995
United States Americas 2007 78.24200 301139947 42951.6531
Uruguay Americas 1952 66.07100 2252965 5716.7667
Uruguay Americas 1957 67.04400 2424959 6150.7730
Uruguay Americas 1962 68.25300 2598466 5603.3577
Uruguay Americas 1967 68.46800 2748579 5444.6196
Uruguay Americas 1972 68.67300 2829526 5703.4089
Uruguay Americas 1977 69.48100 2873520 6504.3397
Uruguay Americas 1982 70.80500 2953997 6920.2231
Uruguay Americas 1987 71.91800 3045153 7452.3990
Uruguay Americas 1992 72.75200 3149262 8137.0048
Uruguay Americas 1997 74.22300 3262838 9230.2407
Uruguay Americas 2002 75.30700 3363085 7727.0020
Uruguay Americas 2007 76.38400 3447496 10611.4630
Venezuela Americas 1952 55.08800 5439568 7689.7998
Venezuela Americas 1957 57.90700 6702668 9802.4665
Venezuela Americas 1962 60.77000 8143375 8422.9742
Venezuela Americas 1967 63.47900 9709552 9541.4742
Venezuela Americas 1972 65.71200 11515649 10505.2597
Venezuela Americas 1977 67.45600 13503563 13143.9510
Venezuela Americas 1982 68.55700 15620766 11152.4101
Venezuela Americas 1987 70.19000 17910182 9883.5846
Venezuela Americas 1992 71.15000 20265563 10733.9263
Venezuela Americas 1997 72.14600 22374398 10165.4952
Venezuela Americas 2002 72.76600 24287670 8605.0478
Venezuela Americas 2007 73.74700 26084662 11415.8057
Vietnam Asia 1952 40.41200 26246839 605.0665
Vietnam Asia 1957 42.88700 28998543 676.2854
Vietnam Asia 1962 45.36300 33796140 772.0492
Vietnam Asia 1967 47.83800 39463910 637.1233
Vietnam Asia 1972 50.25400 44655014 699.5016
Vietnam Asia 1977 55.76400 50533506 713.5371
Vietnam Asia 1982 58.81600 56142181 707.2358
Vietnam Asia 1987 62.82000 62826491 820.7994
Vietnam Asia 1992 67.66200 69940728 989.0231
Vietnam Asia 1997 70.67200 76048996 1385.8968
Vietnam Asia 2002 73.01700 80908147 1764.4567
Vietnam Asia 2007 74.24900 85262356 2441.5764
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1952 43.16000 1030585 1515.5923
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1957 45.67100 1070439 1827.0677
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1962 48.12700 1133134 2198.9563
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1967 51.63100 1142636 2649.7150
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1972 56.53200 1089572 3133.4093
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1977 60.76500 1261091 3682.8315
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1982 64.40600 1425876 4336.0321
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1987 67.04600 1691210 5107.1974
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1992 69.71800 2104779 6017.6548
West Bank and Gaza Asia 1997 71.09600 2826046 7110.6676
West Bank and Gaza Asia 2002 72.37000 3389578 4515.4876
West Bank and Gaza Asia 2007 73.42200 4018332 3025.3498
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1952 32.54800 4963829 781.7176
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1957 33.97000 5498090 804.8305
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1962 35.18000 6120081 825.6232
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1967 36.98400 6740785 862.4421
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1972 39.84800 7407075 1265.0470
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1977 44.17500 8403990 1829.7652
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1982 49.11300 9657618 1977.5570
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1987 52.92200 11219340 1971.7415
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1992 55.59900 13367997 1879.4967
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 1997 58.02000 15826497 2117.4845
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 2002 60.30800 18701257 2234.8208
Yemen, Rep.  Asia 2007 62.69800 22211743 2280.7699
Zambia Africa 1952 42.03800 2672000 1147.3888
Zambia Africa 1957 44.07700 3016000 1311.9568
Zambia Africa 1962 46.02300 3421000 1452.7258
Zambia Africa 1967 47.76800 3900000 1777.0773
Zambia Africa 1972 50.10700 4506497 1773.4983
Zambia Africa 1977 51.38600 5216550 1588.6883
Zambia Africa 1982 51.82100 6100407 1408.6786
Zambia Africa 1987 50.82100 7272406 1213.3151
Zambia Africa 1992 46.10000 8381163 1210.8846
Zambia Africa 1997 40.23800 9417789 1071.3538
Zambia Africa 2002 39.19300 10595811 1071.6139
Zambia Africa 2007 42.38400 11746035 1271.2116
Zimbabwe Africa 1952 48.45100 3080907 406.8841
Zimbabwe Africa 1957 50.46900 3646340 518.7643
Zimbabwe Africa 1962 52.35800 4277736 527.2722
Zimbabwe Africa 1967 53.99500 4995432 569.7951
Zimbabwe Africa 1972 55.63500 5861135 799.3622
Zimbabwe Africa 1977 57.67400 6642107 685.5877
Zimbabwe Africa 1982 60.36300 7636524 788.8550
Zimbabwe Africa 1987 62.35100 9216418 706.1573
Zimbabwe Africa 1992 60.37700 10704340 693.4208
Zimbabwe Africa 1997 46.80900 11404948 792.4500
Zimbabwe Africa 2002 39.98900 11926563 672.0386
Zimbabwe Africa 2007 43.48700 12311143 469.7093

Visuals

Let’s get started by plotting the gdpPercap and lifeExp and use a scatter plot.

gapminder %>%
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp)) +
  geom_point()

We can clearly see that this graph is not helpful to anyone because we have a lot of countries with a low gdpPercap so they are all clustered together and we cannot see any individual differences. On the other side we have very few countries with a high gdpPercap and there we can see very clearly the individual differences. It would be very helpful if we would have the X axis expanded at lower values and contracted at high values, to see everything clearly.

This can be easily done by scaling the X axis on a logarithmic scale. I think log10 should do the trick, all we need is a function called scale_x_..., in this case log10. We will also change the label format just to make it easier to read.

gapminder %>%
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap, y = lifeExp)) +
  geom_point() +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si()) # The label is just to format the numbers in a more user friendly way

This tells us a bit more about the situation but I think we can do one better.

Let’s try to split the data by continent. We will do that by adding colour to the dots and just to help us differentiate the better we will add the country population as a variable. The population will be represented by the size of the point.


gapminder %>%
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap, 
                       y = lifeExp, 
                       colour = continent, 
                       size = pop)) +
  geom_point() +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si())

Now we have more information, although it’s a bit too much and is due for some refinement.

Since a lot of the dots overlap we cannot see all of them. It would help to have them a bit more transparent and in that way, we will know that where we see higher opacity is because of multiple dots overlapping. The opacity of a geom can be controlled by using a parameter called alpha (this is used outside the mapping function in this case as we want to apply it to all dots uniformly). This parameter controls the opacity of the objects from 0 to 100 %.

We will also eliminate the legend since it takes space. The parameters should be passed to the object (geom_point).


gapminder %>%
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap, 
                       y = lifeExp, 
                       colour = continent, 
                       size = pop)) +
  geom_point(alpha = 0.4, show.legend = FALSE)  +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si())

Looks better, however we can make it even better.

At the moment the data shows multiple recordings for each country, however if we want to show the status quo, we just need the last record for each country. In here we will see the power of the pipe operator (%>%). We will need to add some lines between the dataset and the ggplot function that will transform the data for us before displaying it. I will need to filter the data so it will display the last year on record for each country. Before filtering we will need to group the data and apply the filter just within the group.

Also, let’s make two aesthetic changes. The first change that we’ll make is to change the colour scheme of the graph. These are just a personal preferences, however since the people that created the dataset were nice enough to code colours for each continent, we will take advantage of that.

The second change is to make the X and Y labels more explicit:

gapminder %>%
  
  # Prepare the groups in which to filter
  group_by(country) %>%
  
  # The Filter
  filter(year == max(year)) %>%
  
  # The plot
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap,                         
                       y = lifeExp,                           
                       colour = continent,                    
                       size = pop)) +                         
  geom_point(alpha = 0.4, show.legend = FALSE)  + 
  
  # The new colour scheme
  scale_colour_manual(values = continent_colors) +
  
  # Axes Adjustments
  labs(x = "GDP Per Capita", y = "Life Expectancy") +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si())                     

Almost done! Although I think we can do better still. What if we want to split this graphic into multiple graphics, one for each continent so we can see the data better.

We can do that, with just one line of code. In R this is done using facets. I will not go into a lot of details about them, however, it works like this.

gapminder %>%
  group_by(country) %>%                    
  filter(year == max(year)) %>%              
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap, 
                       y = lifeExp,
                       colour = continent,
                       size = pop)) +
  geom_point(alpha = 0.4, show.legend = FALSE)  +
  scale_colour_manual(values = continent_colors) +
  labs(x = "GDP Per Capita", y = "Life Expectancy") +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si()) +
  
  # Splitting the graphs by Continent
  facet_wrap(~ continent)

This graphic is quite useful as it shows us the relative situation on each continent and we can get quite a good idea about the average of each continent. But what if we would like to see where a specific country is situated as compared to its neighbors?

There are multiple ways to do this, and depending on what we want to show and how we want to present the data. The first method we can use is to add labels to the points in the data. This will allow us to see where each country is located compared to its neighbors, however, I’m not a big fan of this approach since it can overwhelm the user with information and it can be hard to see the specific country the user might want to inspect.

A more elegant approach is to highlight the specific country by simply adding a dot of a different colour over the original one. We can also add a label to it, however if we want to highlight just one country, it’s a bit pointless.

So, let’s take this second approach and highlight Romania as compared to its European neighbors. As I said, we will add another geom_point() to the graphic and inside we will select a different dataset, one that contains just the data for the last year and Romania. We will also make the point red, just to differentiate it from the rest.


gapminder %>%
  group_by(country) %>%                    
  filter(year == max(year)) %>%              
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap,
                       y = lifeExp,
                       colour = continent,
                       size = pop)) +
  
  # Data Points
  geom_point(alpha = 0.4, show.legend = FALSE)  +
  
  # Highlighted point
  geom_point(data = gapminder %>% filter(country == "Romania", year == max(year)),
             colour = "red",
             show.legend = FALSE) +
  
  # Graph Parameters
  scale_colour_manual(values = continent_colors) +
  labs(x = "GDP Per Capita", y = "Life Expectancy") +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si()) +
  facet_wrap(~ continent)

So this shows us exactly where the country of interest is compared to other countries both within continent and between continents in one simple graph. We can, of course, highlight more countries if we want to see how they are related to one another or how their group is related to other groups, however, we will need to find a way to distinguish between them. As mentioned above, a good method is to just add labels to the targeted countries.

The above graphic is also a good example of the layers in a graphic that I mentioned in the beginning. In the code we have added the red dot after the original ones, however, if we would have reversed the order the red dot would have appeared under the green one. In this particular case we will still be able to see it slightly because the green one is transparent however it will not be as obvious. We can see this in the graph below:

gapminder %>%
  group_by(country) %>%                    
  filter(year == max(year)) %>%              
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap,
                       y = lifeExp,
                       colour = continent,
                       size = pop)) +
  
  # Highlighted Point
  geom_point(data = gapminder %>% filter(country == "Romania", year == max(year)),
             colour = "red",
             show.legend = FALSE) +
  
  # Data Points
  geom_point(alpha = 0.4, show.legend = FALSE)  +
  
  # Graph parameters
  scale_colour_manual(values = continent_colors) +
  labs(x = "GDP Per Capita", y = "Life Expectancy") +
  scale_x_log10(labels = label_number_si()) +
  facet_wrap(~ continent)

Should we add one more layer of complexity to this graph?

At the moment we only show the latest record for each country, however, our data contains historical records, and historical records or time series in general are used to show a trend. So what would be the best way to show the trend?

We can show the trend using regression or some statistical method, however, it might be a bit of an overkill in this case. We can do this by simply animating the graph to show the data for each year in order. We can do it using an additional library called gganimate by simply adding a variable that will show us the transition, in this case it will be the year column and the type of transition we would like, in this case it would be linear.

Please be advised that this option is only available when you are creating a report in a HTML format.

An animated graph and the code will look like this.

library(gganimate)

gapminder %>%
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = gdpPercap, 
                       y = lifeExp, 
                       colour = continent, 
                       size = pop)) +
  geom_point(alpha = 0.4, show.legend = FALSE)  +
  geom_point(data = gapminder %>% filter(country == "Romania"), # New Point 
             colour = "red",                                    # New Point
             show.legend = FALSE) +                             # New Point
  scale_x_log10() +
  scale_colour_manual(values = continent_colors) + 
  labs(title = "Year: {frame_time}", # Animated Title
       x = "GDP Per Capita",                       
       y = "Life Expectancy") + 
  
  # Animation Part
  transition_time(year) +
  ease_aes("linear") +
  facet_wrap(~ continent)

Using animated graphics can be a bit problematic. As you can see, I have moved the facet_wrap part right at the end of the code. This is because the gganimate library will animate each graph individually, therefore if we add it at the end it will only have to animate one graph, not five and reduces the time from around 30 minutes to 15-20 seconds.

Conclusion

Visualizations can be a very powerful tool to transmit a lot of information in a simple way and with a high impact, the only limit is your imagination. Remember that we started our data exploration from here:

In this introductory article I tried to explain how you can start from something simple and, by adding additional steps, you can increase the complexity in a simple way and hopefully I managed to explain the advantages of using a programming language as opposed to a point and click solution.

Using code gives you more control over the visualizations and is easier to update it based on the requests from the business users. Code is also easier to share with your team and to be recycled from one project to another. You can just copy and paste pieces of code from one part to another, while with point and click, if you can’t just change the source and refresh, you will need to create each pivot, or visual once more, you can’t use just a part of a report.